Is it coincidential how close this sounds to the word "name"? I don't think Japanese would use a loanword for a word as basic as "name", and the fact that it's written in kanji makes me think even more that it's a coincidence. Either way, I'm thankful that Japanese has at least one cognate lol
There were languages that preceded or existed alongside the proto-language groups that we know of. So we don't know the entire history of where all of the influences were. But in words like "name" and a few others, we see some possible evidence of interactions between ancient tribes that we don't know about, only suspect, which may have preceded some of the migrations and interactions that we do know about. There is also the case of cultures that were essentially destroyed, etc., who were simply never written about because they preceded writing systems. That's where scholars are tempted to think that, for example, the Vanir were actually a group of real people, and not just some story about some mythological gods.
Cognates are words that have a common etymological origin, so technically these (name and 名前) aren't cognates because Japanese and English are 'completely unrelated' languages, unlike English and Scots/Frisian/Dutch/German/Luxembourgish/Bavarian/Swedish/Danish/Norwegian/Icelandic/Yiddish/Interlingua/Latin/Norman/French/Haitian/Catalan/Spanish/Portuguese/Romanian/Esperanto/Ido/Kurdish/Persian/Mazanderani/Sindhi/Hindi/Urdu/Bengali, which are related and in which the words for 'name' are indeed cognates (that was fun).