"I am not in trouble."
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I think I'm definitely missing the same nuance as you, but my guess is that this is a case of, uhhh, I'll call it past-tense-continuance, like how "I am hungry" is literally "my stomach became empty". Maybe こまりません has an implication more like "I'm not getting in trouble (or becoming troubled?) right now."
Plugging it into Google Translate (with kanji: 困りません) gives: "I do not need help." Not sure if that supports my hypothesis or not, 'cause, y'know, Google Translate.
I think they both can be replaced with 大丈夫 (だいじょうぶ) です, but 困りません means more like "won't get in trouble" whereas 困っていません refers to the present situation.
傘を忘れても困りません。I (or you) won't get in trouble even if I forget my umbrella. 傘を忘れても困っていません。 I'm not in trouble even though I forgot my umbrella. / I haven't got in trouble even though I forgot my umbrella.
I'll leave my point of view (which comes from past comments and lessons) because I see nobody still said exactly what I think: the te-form, which can usually be translated with present continuous, is used in some cases when you are expressing how you're feeling right now/a state of yours. 困っています/いません then could be viewed as something like "I am/am not currently in the state of being in trouble (or whatever translation you want to use)", while the 困ります form would be more like "I don't/will not get troubled". This is what I got about the use of the te-form in some instances, please feel free to correct me since I'm not a pro, but I'm pretty sure I read it elsewhere from people who was more trustworthy.