"I do not listen to a lot of music."
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No. The post he's replying to is about music ("I like music. I listen to a lot of music") and the reply is "Me too! Cats are very cute". Honestly, it's a non sequitur (i.e. what does liking music have to do with the cuteness of cats?), so using が would be infelicitous, because using が requires cats to be already in the discourse and highly salient. You introduce a new topic with は. The sentence is more like "As for cats, they're cute." EDIT: not that it affects anything else I said, but apparently cats enter into it because the OP's user icon had a cute cat before they were a deactivated user, so it's "The cat is very cute".
を changed to は because it's a negative sentence.
AFAIK (I'm not very proficient so it would be great if someone could verify this) は marks what you disagree with. There could be a question asking whether you listen to music daily. Then you could either mark daily with は and music with を, meaning that you don't listen to music daily, or you could mark music with は, meaning that you don't listen to music at all. Not having は seems to be just plain wrong here (i.e. you say no but at the same time agree with all the parts of the sentence).
Its just associating the sentence structure to English were using 2 negatives would cancel the meaning but in other languages using 2 or more negatives wont necessarily alter the meaning, its still using a "double negative" to convey the meaning and at least in Spanish the whole sentence doesn't need to be negative to make sense
That is not even true of English and never has been. There were some upper crust guys in the 19th century that decided that because in formal logic two negatives cancel, it therefore stands to reason that natural language must work the same way (come hell or high water). It doesn't though. Speakers who natively say things like "I ain't got none" do not mean "I have some", they mean "I do not have any" but their dialect requires negative concord (i.e the negativity must agree across words in the sentence).
You are making two questions there... first: why the sentence doesn't use たくさん instead of あまり, and second: why doesn't use the other kanji for 聴く
So let's start with the hardest one
"why あまり instead of たくさん？"
the original meaning of あまり is a little bit more complicated than just "a lot". Duolingo is just translating the Japanese sentence into English and teaching you the word. However you might need to be aware that あまり has a negative connotation, that's why is often used in negative sentences, and while you can use it in positive ones, the negative connotation still prevails.
Here is an extract from the DoJG:
The adverb あまり usually occurs in negative sentences, meaning 'not very (much)'. あまり is one of a group of adverbs which co-occur with negative predicates; In limited situations, あまり can be used in affirmative sentences, too. In this case, it means 'very; too' with a negative implication.
And the meaning of the kanji used for the word「余」has strong relevance to stretch, and it might imply to do something too much to the point of leaving only a remnant of resources. In Japanese, you use あまり as an adverb to soften the negative implication of the sentence. This is very similar to when you use "not much" in English, so I would personally translate this sentence into "I do not listen to music much", probably accepted by now in this exercise.
The reason why you don't use たくさん in here is because as I explained, the reason for あまり is not to mean "a lot" is just a softening expression from the language. Using たくさん here sound weirds to me here because of the negative meaning. たくさん would make more sense if the sentence is a positive one like たくさん書きます。Using it with a negative verb is like saying "I do a lot of not hearing" and that just sounds wrong.
Why 聞く instead of 聴く
聞 is a more general kanji, you can translate 聞く to "to hear", it doesn't have anything to do with music, while 聴 is more about paying attention while hearing and you can translate 聴く to "to listen" and in the context of music it also has an "enjoying" meaning.
In the exercise 聴く makes more sense to me, but Duolingo is probably using a more general kanji for this sentence because this is still a basic part of the course. Both are fine though.
Why is it は and not が? I swear... every time I think to FINALLY grasp the difference between the two I find out the rules changed, or there are additional rules or exceptions.
Here the 私は at the start of the sentence is understod but not included, right? Why is it then は and が is not accepted at all?
in this particular sentence is to place the focus of the sentence into the negation. The important part is あまり聞きません.
Since the topic is something that is known between both the listener and the speaker, at least conceptually, the topic is not important, what's important is what you are saying about the topic, then the rest of the sentence pops up in the listener's mind. The listener hears 音楽は "speaking of music" and he thinks "what about it?".. あまり聞きません。"I do not listen to it much".
If you use が、this would be ungrammatical since we expect を as in よく音楽を聞きます。
I got this right only because i knew what duo was after, BUT, I think Duo had it wrong. I would translate Duos answer as :I don't listen to music much, or, a lot. Yet, it asked to translate the English sentence of: I don't listen to a lot of music. Therefor, Music should be modified, not the verb. .....imho, haha
there's a slight difference in nuance between "i don't listen to a lot of music" and "i don't really listen to music". the first case might be if say, someone only listens to one type of music. the second is more like he doesn't really listen to music at all. would there be a difference in japanese?