"Please read this passage."
How do you know if you should use de or te with these imperative sentences telling someone to do something?
For the る verbs (e.g. ねる、食べる、みる), it's easy; just replace る with て.
For う verbs (e.g. かく、はなす、しる), look up the て-form song. The verb ending will change the て-form depending on the last letter:
う、つ、る --> って (-tte)
ぶ、む、ぬ --> んで
す --> して
く --> いて
ぐ --> いで
する --> して
くる(来る) --> きて
いく(行く) --> いって (exception)
Like most conjugations, that depends on the verb. The standard is -te, with the following notes:
For verbs whose standard "dictionary form" (the 終止形 （しゅうしけい）) ends in -mu or -bu, the -te form becomes -nde. For example:
- 読む (よむ; 'to read') → 読んで
- 呼ぶ (よぶ; 'to call/yell') → 呼んで
For verbs that end in -ku, it becomes -ite. E.g.:
- 書く （かく; 'to write'）→ 書いて
- [sidenote: 行く （いく; 'to go'） is irregular: 行って]
For verbs that end in -tsu or -u, it becomes a double consonant: -tte. E.g.
- 待つ （まつ; 'to wait'）→ 待って
- 買う （かう; 'to buy'）→ 買って
All this also applies to the -ta form, which makes the informal past tense.
Great answer. ^^
But just want to add a note that, even though they are almost always identical in modern Japanese, I believe the "dictionary form" is actually 終止形（しゅうしけい）rather than 連体形.
I knowぶんしょう as 1. writing; composition; essay; article; prose; (writing) style and 2. sentence, but not as passage.
*しょう is shou
*The particle を is written as "o" using Hepburn romanization, though for learning purposes "wo" is okay
*読んで (よんで) is yonde, preferably as one word
Kono bunshou o yonde kudasai.
????????? what the hell is the difference between ぶんしょう and さくぶん? IT marked my sentence as wrong when I used さくぶん