Translation:I do not talk to him.
From my understanding, は is added to many particles (while it completely replaces others) only when its a negative response to a question. For instance, you could, out of the blue, say:
But if someone asked you:
Your response would be:
Looking it up online (learn-japanese-adventure.com) reveals: In general, the rules for the Japanese particles change in negative answer are as follows...
Rule 1: None/を/が/も -- は
Meaning:Where there is no particle, or its を/が/も, drop it and replace it with は.
Rule 2: Other Particles -- Particle + は
Meaning: If the particle isn't one of the above, add は to the particle.
(に -- には , と -- とは , で -- では , へ -- へは , etc)
It implies the person will not/does not talk with him, but will/does talk to other people. Of course, that is understood even if you don't add the particle は here, but as kido913723 wrote before, this puts emphasis on かれ. As in he must have done something horrible/really bad that he is specified here like that. Maybe that's just me, but the sentence sounds like the person is really mad, the way it's presented here without any further context. "彼と話しません。" sounds more like a general statement (of course there would be a reason in that case, too, though).
From this, I understand that "かれとははなしません" means "In all cases, when it comes to him, I will not speak" (i.e. you refuse even when you have the opportunity—for example, because you hate him), whereas "かれとはなしません" means "I don't happen to speak with him" (i.e. you don't have the opportunity—for example, because he's in a different class from you). The difference coming from the particle は. When you say "かれとは...", it means "regarding being in company with him...", but when you say only "かれと...", it means only "with him..." So they have different implications even though their literal meaning is about the same.
I'm wondering about the time scale involved. Is this a person who the subject does not talk to in general, or is this simply a negation of "I talk to him", and it only applies to a single instance, as in "I do not talk to him (now, but I have talked to him in the past and I may talk to him in the future)"?
In English, when you say "I do not talk to him", it is usually implied that you are either choosing not to talk to someone because of personal reasons, or that you are not acquainted and because of that you do not communicate. "I do not talk to him (because I am mad at him)", "I do not talk to him (because we are strangers)", etc. If you want to say you are not talking to him at the moment, you would use the progressive aspect in English (I am still unclear about the differences in how Japanese and English use the progressive aspect).
Well, from what the comments are saying I think it's implied that the speaker means something like "I refuse to talk to him" those aren't the words, but the particle use makes it very deliberate like a decision to not talk to him.
"He and I do not talk" doesn't carry the same weight. It sounds like either "we never happen to talk" or it could be mutual that he also refuses to talk to you too. I don't think there's a way to do that in English without adding words like "refuse to" but either way, your suggestion makes it sound like he also is part of the decision to not talk.
In Japanese if you're talking VERY informally you could even get rid of most particles and say 彼と話さない or even 彼 話さない (although this one is very grammatically incorrect). Informal speech mostly depends on how close you are to the person you are talking to, their age and the dialect and slang (in Nagasaki we would say 彼を話せん). But to be play it safe I recommend the first one (changing -imasu for -nai/-anai/-wanai depending on the verb)
While some particles can be dropped in casual speech, this is not the case for particles like と since the sentence cannot be understood as it is intended without them.
"彼、話さない。" would probably mean "He does not/won't speak.". Of course, there are other possibilities without context.
I've read the whole thread and still don't get the "と" here. As far as I know, it means "and" or "with" or is used to quote or as a condition marker (the last two situations have not been studied here yet). So is it like they say in Japanse "to talk with someone", or is it something else ? Thx !
は adds contrast, so it is more common to use it when making a negative statement. For positive statements, it has more potential to sound strange.
"To him, I do not speak."
This implies that not talking to him is different from how you treat other people. Normally you will talk to people, but you do not talk TO HIM.
"To friends, I do speak."
Again, this makes it sound like talking to friends is unusual or different from how you interact with other people. Kind of makes it sound like you are a sketchy loner who avoids social interactions.
"I speak with my friends."
This lacks the extra contrast provided by the topic marker. It is just a factual statement without implied subtext.
Keep in mind, both ways are grammatically correct. But you should be careful about over-using は. It isn't always necessary or desirable.