Translation:My father and mother are from Osaka.
Yes. Normally, we would need to know the context for a sentence like this, so we wouldn't know it's referring to "my" father and mother, but since 母 and 父 are used exclusively when talking about your own mother and father to someone else, the only possibility here is "my".
I think there's a bit of a difference, though. In English, if you say "Mom and dad are fine." It does mean that you're talking about your own mom and dad. But it also means you're talking to a sibling (or a spouse -- someone who would refer to your parents as their own). If you were talking to a friend, you'd have to say "My mom and dad are fine." Otherwise, it would suggest that they are the parents of your friend as well.
Yes, but, you do hear annoying (or sometimes playful) people saying "How's Mom today?" when referring to your mother. My apartment manager said to me, after my mother died, "Well, now Mom is singing with the angels." My point is we don't have entirely different words for our relatives, depending on whether they are yours or someone else's. Japanese does.
Not sure about Japanese; in Chinese, the male term comes first, so it is preferable to say "father and mother" ("dad and mom") in Chinese. Maybe Japanese is the same?
(BTW, English is a bit inconsistent on this account, because although we put the female first in "mom and dad," we put the male first in "brothers and sisters.")
From what i understand, that would then place emphasis on Osaka. This current sounds like a general statement on the topic of ones parents, but if you you were to add the が particle, you then it would sound like you're emphasizing that they're definitely from Osaka and not somewhere else, as if the questioner perhaps took a guess at some other city. Hopefully someone else can verify that but that's how i understand the particle in this context
I am confused by this sentence because i thought から meant from. when i entered しゅうしん into google's Japanese/English translator it says hometown. is that why から is not used? because this statement is saying where they originate, not where they necessarily live now?
also, please correct me if I'm wrong in my understanding, when pronounced ちち and はは it is referencing ones own family. that is why it is "My father and mother" as opposed to yours which would be とうさん and かあさん, not 100% on those kana. Am i correct in my understanding?
Duo is, after all, a program. That means it can only mark you right if you match an answer that it has in its database as being a correct response. Using the word "hail" like that, while perfectly correct, is very non-standard and just something that I'm sure Duo doesn't have in its database. You can report it with the "My answer should be accepted" option and it might get added as being accepted in the future.
It bothers my brain that you can't write "mom and dad." You must write "dad and mom." It has to be in the correct order in this question, but in other questions it doesn't matter.