"I broke up with my boyfriend last week."
If you want to say that '(he/she/name) broke out with me' than I think the 'passive form' is needed, passive is apparently often used when somone preform an action on you in a negative context.
Here is a link for a video about this, you can find information on the internet too https://youtu.be/QPOA3OYFnj4
As for the particales I get confoused too , so i try to learn them in a context. There are videos about them in the same channel of the link above