Translation:Is your father tired?
I seem to have forgotten how the て works here! Could someone kindly explain?
Its an action that is in progress. Similiar to "-ing" in english. It means other things aswell
I am wondering whether Is your father tired? would also match a past-tense construction: お父さんはつかれたですか？.
I have indeed learnt that つかれた could mean tired, as an accomplished action (“you are tired because you did become so”), but I would like a confirmation of this.
"...te iru" is stative, that is, the action is the current state of affairs. That can mean either that the action is on-going or that no further developments have happened since the action was completed. The usphot of that is that depending on context and semantics, it can be translated by the English present progressive or past perfect tense. (Tegami ga kite iru = "A letter is coming" or "A letter has arrived."
The "...te iru/imasu" form, even when translated by the present progressive tense in English, indicates a state of being something rather than a state of becoming something.
Gajiin, 1. You may use "chichi" ONLY when talking about your own father to someone outside your family or social unit.
- In virtually all other situations, including conversations within your group, use "otoosan" and you will not offend anyone.
How do you identify whose father it's talking about? Your father, or mine?
It depends on who is talking and to whom he is talking.
He could be talking to a member of his own family circle, all of whom would call the father "otoosan," and, in that case, be talking about the father of his own family.
He could also be talking to someone outside of his own family and, in that case, be talking about his listener's father.
Presumably, he is not talking about his own father to anyone outside of his own family. (But I'm not sure how well the old conventions are holding up these days.)