"I practice the piano and the guitar."
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練習 is a noun "a practice" but it is also a suru verb, meaning it can be turned into a verb with the addition of する "do"
練習をします is also correct, more literally "To do a practice" while 練習します would be translated as just "to practice"
する・します is a transitive verb meaning it can take a direct object, but so is the combined 練習します
ピアノとギターを練習をします The issue here is you can't have two direct objects like that, as here it would mean the verb "to do" is acting on "piano and guitar", not the verb "to practice". Then you've thrown in it acting on the word "practice" as well, making it nonsensical.
If you wanted to use 練習をします and want to state what kind of practice you were doing you would need to modify the noun "practice" itself.
ピアノとギターの練習 - "piano and guitar practice" (the practice of piano and guitar)
ピアノとギターの練習をします "I do (piano and guitar practice)"
or alternatively you could use the suru verb as this sentence does 練習します "to practice"
ピアノとギターを練習します "I practice (the piano and guitar)"
Wouldn't it be 練習しています? Because this sentence is saying that they do this regularly and the ていす form also has the meaning of doing something regularly and not just in the moment. For example, when saying what you're studying in school it would be:
ジャナリスメを勉強しています. Because this is something that is still in progress and we are working on it.