"I received this diamond from my grandmother."
I'm confused. Sometimes the order seems variable, other times we get slammed unless we use a certain order -- and I have trouble keeping track of which is required where. Is there an explanation somewhere?
Sentence order in Japanese is not difficult. As long as the words are followed by the correct particles, and the main verb is at the end, any order goes. Therefore, besides your typological errors (ダイヤモンド, not ダイアモンド, ヤ instead of ア), this order is fine.
から is mainly used for getting things from companies and organisations. From a person you use に