"Is Mr. John an American?"
人 has two pronunciations. It can be pronounced as じん which is the the onyomi/chinese way of reading the character. It can also be pronounced as ひと which is the kunyomi/japanese way of reading the character.
じん is usually used for indicating the nationality of a person. For example, people from China (中国) are called 中国人, people from Japan (日本) are called 日本人, people from America (アメリカ) are called アメリカ人. Now you get the gist.
ひと is usually use to indicate a person. For example, a man is 男の人 (read as おとこのひと), a woman is 女の人, a person in general is あの人. But it's not the only use for the kunyomi of 人.
That simbol represents people, in this case like "america people " so it is american thats how i understand it, correct me if im wrong
We do, [Jin] we use it when we refer to a nationality:
America (country) AmericaN (nationality) (here you use Jin)
What does は mean? I notice it only appears when there's something before アメリカ (or other location), never when アメリカ is at the beginning of a sentence. Is it some kind of clause-separator?
Japanese just like any language has particles, a particles only function is to refer to a subject or an object in a sentence
For instance: John runs to the store. 'John' is the subject, 'runs' is the verb and 'the store' is the object. But we have that little two character word 'to' which would then be the particle of this sentence
In this case it's referring to the subject (ジョンさん) and when we refer to a subject in the japanese language, we use the particle は(pronounced wa in its particle state).
Hope this helps.
What exactly is the purpose of the か at the end? Does it denote a question?
I have been taught sounds for each symbol but I font know what they mean in a sentence so this is hard to do