"I did not study yesterday."

Translation:昨日は勉強しませんでした。

June 29, 2017

70 Comments
This discussion is locked.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ruisu13

Why ends with しませんでした instead of only end with しません?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ginkkou

-ませんでした is the polite past ending. Since the original is in the past tense, you have to use the past tense here as well.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/NathanChap15

thank you for the answer that helped me out


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/somelauw

Since pronouns and plurals aren't required in Japanese, I'm surprised past tenses are.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Livanas3

Japanese doesnt require conjugations for future tense since it's the same as present tense, however to indicate the past the past tense conjugation is required.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/klaolk

So basicly i can just say -しません but i would sound inpolite?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Swisidniak

しません is negative non-past "I do not study" or "I will not study"
This sentence is past tense 'Did not study" so the past tense conjugation is needed しませんでした

Casual would be しなかった "did not do"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/arehandoro23

-しませんis for present negative while -しませんでした is used for past negative


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/David666715

Adding でした (or just changing the す to した for positive verbs) changes the ますform of the verb to past tense.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/adam130130

Because it is past tense


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DebAzevedo

About adding or not the は after 今日, 明日 etc, somebody please tell me if this is correct? I feel like it depends on the question/sentence that led to the one we're translating, for example: If someone asked "what did you do yesterday?" we would add the は because "yesterday" is the topic. If they asked "when did you study?" we would not add the は because "studying" is the topic. So both answers should be accepted because we don't have this context to base our answer on. How far from right is this?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Pedro601962

I am no expert either but 今日 昨日 can definitely be used without the は. I am not very good with identifying the topic but I can assure you that without the は is correct. One question because you seem to know a bit... when answering a question, is the topic the information already stated on the question or is it the info you are being requested? For instance, "when did you study?" What you have stated is the studying part and you are requesting the moment in which the other person has done so. What woukd be the topic there?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TyrantRC

「昨日は勉強しませんでした」

【きのうは・べんきょう→しませんでした】

する → negative masu → しません → past negative masu → しませんでした


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/bellabeize

Hello, Please help (: Why is the particle を is optional why it's not necessary to use it? 昨日は勉強をしませんでした This was accepted also by duolingo.. Thank you (:


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SpudMuffin5

I was wondering that, too. I got t last sentence Duolingo gave me wrong because I didn't put を in it. Why doesn't this sentence need it?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Oscarvarium

The similar sentence "I did not work the day before yesterday" used the 'so'/'wo' particle after the verb, before "shimasen deshita". What's with that difference? Is it a tone/meaning thing or do some verbs just not need it?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TianaVel

It is because べんきょうします is a verb in itself, while しごと is a noun, that you have "to do", therefore the particle を before the verb します. The verb for work is はたらく.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/helen775602

Ah finally that quirk makes sense!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SeanFogart4

"昨日勉強はしませんでした。" This was rejected and I don't see why . . .


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Julia543869

because you put は after study. It comes after 昨日. So whole sentence 昨日は勉強しませんでした。


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/avatar.me_4

Can i put を in the sentence 昨日は勉強(を)しませんでした?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Telik2

I have the same question, because I think it could maybe be grammatically correct in the sense of "when it comes to studying, I didn't do it, but did something else instead". Can anyone confirm?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lipglossary

I also think this is correct.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Kotomidearu

So..... Am i not able to leave the time without an attached particle. 昨日勉強しませんでした。i thought i could say that


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/David666715

When i was taking japanese classes we never once used は in this context and it is odd for me to do it. Doubly so when the particle after times/dates is usually に i.e. you would say 8月7日にきました (i came on aug. 7) or 9時に起きました (i woke up at 9)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Mary803105

Sorry if this question has been answered already... Why is it -deshita" instead of "-mashita" since study is a verb... i feel like it is so random it makes my head hurt


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/adam130130

Hey, shimashita is past positive tense. Benkyoushimashita is i did study. Positive past. shimasen deshita is past negative tense. Benkyoushimasen deshita is i did not study.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/adam130130

positive present; X-shimasu negative present; X-shimasen positive past; X-shimashita negative past; X-shimasen deshita


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Tawny04

Thank you so much for explaining this!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Yamori-chan

I do not understand the difference between (しません) and (ません) why do you add (し)?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TyrantRC

しません is the polite negative version of する meaning "to do"。~ませ~ん alone is not a verb, it's just two auxiliaries that are attached to the i-stem of a given verb to transform it into a polite negative version.

In this case, the i-stem of the irregular する is し and then you attach ~ません to it. しません and しない are both the negative versions of します and する。

Other examples are:

ある → あります → ありません

いる → います → いません

話す → 話します → 話しません

飲む → 飲みます → 飲みません

In this sentence you are also using a past negative form of する, しませんでした is whole. I know is confusing because the past of です is also でした、but it's better if you see しませんでした as one word than a combination of different things. It gets easier later on.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Yamori-chan

Thanks for the the detailed explanation. I am starting to get it.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Tawny04

Thank you so much for this explanation. It really helped me to understand.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IkaraPenti

Why shimasu instead of imasu here?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/NeonMarkov

べんきょう is a noun, the act of studying, so it needs します to turn into a verb. べんきょうします would be something close to "the act of studying"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IkaraPenti

Or rather, why します instead of います


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Biomechanic2010

しる is do いる is to be. These are saying "do" or "did study"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MikiG823

する* not しる


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BrittanyRo14

Why don't I have to use を? It's not kinou benkyou wo shimasen deshita? I dropped は because I know that's not always necessary, but I thought をwas.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RVJioWts

Using the を is also technically correct. べんきょうします (benkyoushimasu) is somewhat special in that it doesn't need an を though. べんきょうをします would basically be like saying, "I do studying." It's not wrong, but it's unnecessary when you could just say "studying" to mean the same thing.

For example, if someone asked what you were doing tonight, you'd normally just answer, "I will be studying," not "I will be doing studying."


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/firerosearien

What is the difference betwren ました and でした ?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Tawny04

The reason why you end with deshita in this sentence is because there isn't a negative form of mashita in the past tense. So it becomes shimasen deshita. I hope this helps.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SweetPurpleJam

I'm a little confused when to use ました and でした. Any pointers or a simple explanation will do


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Damitris

ました is non-negative past. ません + でした is negative past.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MikiG823

Kinda late but to add, in formal Japanese:

~ました is the non negative past suffix for ~ます form (う and る verbs).

でした is the past affirmative form of です. It's also added to negate noun+する verbs in the past tense. (i.e. Noun+しませんでした).


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Tawny04

There is a ha after kinou (yesterday)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ukamii2

i still can't figure out in which cases you use は, が or non of them. like in this one there is no が after 勉強 but in another examples it is there


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PrismVelocity

TLDR: It's neither in this case; technically を is the correct particle, but it's not used either because 勉強 is a suru noun.

Long Answer: は is already marking 昨日 as the topic, contextualizing the sentence similar to "as for yesterday". As far as I know, there can only be one topic per sentence, and so only one topic marker. You can have は mark 勉強 if you want but I think you have to remove it from 昨日 first.

is the subject particle, it marks whatever noun is executing the verb in the sentence. The verb in this case is "しませんでした"/"to not have done", dreived from する/"to do", so が is marking the (not) doer. I'm not sure there are a lot of examples of 勉強 (literally "the act or process of studying") as a subject noun, so 勉強が may be a rare phrase. The example you may have come across must have been " 勉強が好きです。" meaning "I like studying" but is syntatically structured more like "Studying is pleasing." The distinction in structure is important: が is used here because 好き is an adjective and です is the closest thing Japanese has to the English verb "to be".

勉強 in this sentence however isn't the subject; in fact " 昨日は勉強(を)しませんでした。" doesn't have an explicit subject; The English translation tells us that it's supposed to be "me/I", which means there is an implied "私が" hidden in the message. Instead 勉強 is a direct object, the noun that is acted upon by the verb, in this case the thing that is being done. This is why I inserted the object marker after it here.

Now are you ready for a twist? I lied about 勉強 being a direct object in this sentence. The truth is that it part of the verb 勉強する (or 勉強します for politeness). How does this work? Well, 勉強 is what we call a suru noun, a noun that can be turned into a verb if you add the base verb する to the end of it. That's why を is left out. The difference is basically like using the word "study" as a verb vs. as a noun in English:

私が勉強します = I do the studying.
私が勉強します (no を) = I study.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/A.Kokonut.nut

What is the difference of でした and ました?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PrismVelocity

This is pretty complicated to answer but I'll try. でした by itself is the just the past-tense form of です, like "was" is the past-tense form of "is". Same with ~ました being the past tense form of ~ます. The difference is that the です and でした can exist on their own because they're the Copula Verb, but ~ます and ~ました are suffixes that must be attached as verb endings. For example, let's use the suffix on 食べる/"to eat". 食べます meaning "I eat" can turn into 食べました meaning "I ate"/"I have eaten".

Here's where it gets complicated: to get the negative version of a past-tense verb, you must first negate the present-tense form, usually by replacing ~ます with ~ません, AND THEN YOU ADD でした right after it to make it past-tense. This means turning 食べます(I eat) into --> 食べません(I don't eat) into --> 食べませんでした, all just to say "I did not eat" or "I have not eaten". Also to say "was not" you'd say: ではありませんでした. That is two different forms of です joined together right? What a mess!

To make it easier I'll link these tables real quick: http://www.japaneseverbconjugator.com/BeingVerbs.asp


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Tamezi_

Can you put enfasis in study? 昨日勉強はしませんでした


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/VicSantos18

Hi guys. by putting wa after kino, are we saying that kino is the topic of the sentence? Wa is a topic marker right? Thanks


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/zeanomourph

duo marked it wrong im just wondering, does it make any sense to use the "ga" particle here like 昨日は勉強がしませんでした from what limited knowledge I have this should just mean like "yesterday, WORK isn't what I did" (but like... I did so SOMETHING yesterday. it just wasn't work). does this make any sense or just straight up wrong?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PrismVelocity

nnnnn-No... を would be the correct particle to use here, not が. The difference between subject (marked by が in Japanese) and direct object (marked by を) is that the subject executes the action of the associated verb, whereas the object is the thing that the verb is executed upon.

If you used が the way that you did, then the English translation would come out something like "Yesterday, Studying didn't do." Nevermind that "studying" isn't often a grammatical subject (I mean what kinds of things can the proccess of studying itself even do?), more importantly, the verb します/"to do" is transitive in both languages, meaning it requires an object to work properly. The "studying" needs to be doing something, it can't just do.

Side note: 勉強 is what's called a "suru noun", so named because you can add any conjugation of する — this incudes しませんでした — to the end of it to turn it into a verb- without the need for a particle, which is why Duolingo's sentence here doesn't have one. (Also, I'm assuming that you just got confused about which verbs we were practicing in these lessons. It happens, but reminder: 仕事 is "Work"; 勉強 is "Studying".)

Also also, judging from the implicit meaning you were trying to convey in your example, I assume this one of those は-vs-が questions? It's best not to think of は as a rigidly grammatical particle like が or を, because that would imply that its meaning as a topic marker is somehow seperate from them; instead, you should think in terms of which other particle it's supposed to replace or substitute. That's what's really going on with は: a noun that already has its own grammatical purpose is being emphasized as the topic of the sentence.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Sakura_4455

Why can't it be しません? What's the use of でした here? I'm so horribly confused between ます and います. Please help me !! お願いします


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Swisidniak

でした is what makes this sentence past-tense

します do / will do (habitual/future)
しません do not do / will not do (habitual/future negative)
しました did (past)
しませんでした did not do (past negative)

~ます is a polite non-past verb ending
います is the ~ます form of the verb いる "exist (animate)"


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Kaza4885

What does (ta) mean?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Swisidniak

~た indicates past tense
します - Do
しました - Did (past)
しません - Do not (neg)
しませんでした - Did not do (past neg)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AdamReisman

Duolingo occasionally splits up words spelled in hiragana (when you have options to click on words rather than type them). So I can't tell if something is one word or two. Is でした (deshita) one word or two? Or a a suffix rather than a stand-alone word? The same goes for arimasu and imasu; are they one word each or two?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Anya_Dubinkina

How will it sound in informal speech?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Swisidniak

The casual form of しませんでした is しなかった
So 昨日は勉強しなかった
Though particles also often get dropped in casual speech
昨日、勉強しなかった


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/steph.182

What does 'shi' do? What would it mean if i said 'masen deshita' instead of 'shimasen deshita'? It is used in some places and not others and I don't know why


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Swisidniak

します is the polite form of the verb する "to do"
勉強 is the noun "a study" so it combines with the verb する "do" to create the phrase 勉強する "to study" or in polite form 勉強します
~ます and the other polite inflections cannot attach to 勉強 directly as it is a noun, not a verb.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AkGu20

You don't have "shi" in the options


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JshMaggi

Is 勉強ます、勉強ません wrong ?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Swisidniak

Yes, 勉強 is the noun "a study, studying" so it cannot inflect.
The verb here is する "do" which inflects to polite forms します、しません、しました、しませんでした

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