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Japanese Skill: Positions (Unofficial Tips & Notes)

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[Under Construction] This post is not complete. But, I'll be back to put the last two bits later today.

Some folks don't have an app to access the Japanese course. So, I'm posting this to help you get a head start before the course arrives to Desktop. I am not a native Japanese speaker. If there are any errors, please click the link above and comment over there to let me know. Thanks! :D

Japanese Skill: Positions (Located just after second checkpoint.)

I've taken the liberty of going a little more in depth than the Duolingo skill into using location words and composing some basic location question/answer sentences.

Handy terms to Google: "Japanese Ko So A Do"

Here/There/Over There/Where (Part 1)

ここ koko here
そこ soko there
あそこ asoko over there
どこ doko where

Basic sentence sample:
[ここ・そこ・あそこ] にえんぴつがあります
[koko/soko/asoko] ni enpitsu ga arimasu.
There is a pencil [here/there/over there].
The particle に NI is used here because it pairs with location words. However, で DE is related to where things take place. For instance, if we play at the park, で would be used. I don't have a good explanation off the top of my head to go into when to use に vs で. I'm very rusty at this. Feel free to comment about it if you've got a good explanation.

Location: Where
どこですか。Doko desu ka? Where is it?
Xはどこですか。X wa doko desu ka? Where is X?
あそこ / ここです。Asoko / koko desu. It is over there/here.
X は Yと Z のあいだです。X wa Y to Z no aida desu. X is between Y and Z.
(間=あいだ / aida= between)

Example: (Taylor = X, Central = Y, Stevenson = Z) TaylorはCentralとStevensonのあいだです。Taylor wa Central to Stevenson no aida desu.
Taylor is between Central and Stevenson [Building].
(間=あいだ / aida= between)

Location + Reference Item
Noun1 の Noun2

Noun1: Reference/Marker item.
Noun 2: Location word.

Question: SOUはどこですか。SOU wa doko desu ka? Where is SOU?
Answer: Subway のまえです。Subway no mae desu. It is in front of Subway.
Subway = reference/marker. まえ=location word.
(前 = まえ / mae = in front. の前 = in front of.)

This/That/Over there/Which (Part 2)

Without noun
これ kore This
それ sore That
あれ are That over there
どれ dore Which

Basic sentence samples:
[これ・それ・あれ] はペンです。
[This/That/Over there] is a pen.
[...]はなんですか。What is [this/that/over there]? [...]はいくらですか。How much does [this/that/that over there] cost? [...]はですか。Is it [this/that/that over there]? Note: どれ is not followed by は that I'm aware of. You can just say どれですか。for "Which is it?"

With noun
この kono + noun
その sono + noun
あの ano + noun
どの dono + noun

Basic sentence sample:
[この・その・あの] + [noun] はいくらですか。
Example: このとけいはいくらですか。Kono tokei wa ikura desuka.
How much does this watch cost.
(時計 とけい/tokei watch)

(Location Words: Left, right, under, etc. ... under construction)

July 2, 2017

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