Translation:There is a lot of water.
ある and いる both mean "to exist", but ある is used for objects and plants while いる is used for animald and people.
The polite form of these is あります and います, the things you see at the end of the sentence sometimes
Ga indicates subject being 'water', Wa/Ha indicates topic which would be the fact there is 'a lot of it'
You could certainly, and quite correctly, say, "There is much water." It would sound a little stilted, so you might say it if you were being facetious, for example.
It sounds unnatural in English. It's better to say "there is a lot of water" or "there is too much water" depending on what you're trying to say.
Not the english course, but: "Much" should be used in negative sentences, questions or with a negative particle. In day-to-day english people may use it in positive sentences but itvis rare.
A lot of times people will take the reverse course to get more advanced practice in the target language because you have more exercises where you compose in the actual language you want.
But also, nice explanation. I didn't even realize that about my own language!
It is perfect English, though it may sound a bit formal or old-fashioned. It should be accepted.
It doesnt sound right in English, you would have to say "there's too much water" or "there's not much water" for it to sound correct
Why is "there is enough water" not correct? Doesn't takusan imply 'in abundance'?
I mean those are kind of different concepts. "Enough" is like "the right amount" or "a sufficient amount," whereas "an abundance" is more than enough, maybe even too much. Saying there is enough when there is an abundance is a form of sarcasm.
たくさん means a lot? Are there similar words that require different conditions?
Could this also mean "I have a lot of water"? I've seen "arimasu" also be used when referring to "having" something...
"Day after day, day after day, we stuck, nor breath, not motion As idle as a painted ship upon a painted ocean Water, water everywhere and all the boards did shrink Water, water everywhere nor any a drop to drink." Samuel Taylor Coleridge, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner."