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Welsh or Irish mutations - which are harder?

Hello! I would like to know the mutations of which language are harder, this means "less logical". So for example I know that in Welsh some prepositions require mutations but not always, and not of all consonants, so that's kinda mind-numbing I think. I am not acquainted with Irish so I hope you'll answer me. Thanks!

July 9, 2017

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How would you define “logical” in terms of initial mutations? (The logic that underlies either language’s initial mutations might become more evident if earlier forms of each language were examined.)

Since I don’t know when Welsh requires initial mutations, I can only offer information on the Irish side. In Irish, one of the situations for initial mutations is similar to the Welsh situation that you’d noted: following certain prepositions and the singular definite article, certain consonants and vowels can be mutated. For example cat (“cat”) would be mutated to leis an chat (“with the cat”) in Ulster Irish (using the lenition mutation) or leis an gcat (“with the cat”) in the other Irish dialects (using the eclipsis mutation), but madra (“dog”) would become leis an mhadra and leis an madra respectively, because M can be lenited but can’t be eclipsed; éan (“bird”) would become leis an éan and leis an n-éan respectively, because a vowel can’t be lenited but it can be eclipsed; and rón (“seal”) would remain leis an rón in all dialects because R doesn’t mutate at all.

There are many other grammatical situations in Irish that require initial mutations, but most of those other situations use the same initial mutations in all dialects.

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