"The dress she put on is green."
Translation:La robe qu'elle a mise est verte.
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No, the verb mettre (of which mis is the past participle) has many meanings. Which meaning applies depends on the context. In this case it means "to put on" because we are talking about a dress. The past participle mis gets an added e on the end to agree with the preceding direct object which is feminine. The relative pronoun que provides the link back to la robe that is feminine so the participle becomes mise.
I just checked at reverso the verb 'mettre' and I've seeen plenty of example using in passe compose without any agreement in gender.
'Quand j'ai mis la main sur vous...' 'J'ai mis une caméra dans sa rue' 'J'ai mis des choses dans ton sac' and etc
Also when I tried to translate with reverso and google translator the phrase 'elle a mise une robe est verte' both translated it as she was gambling a robe, but without -e the translation was correct.
In my opinion if there's a rule about agreement, French don't follow it.