Drugie pytanie gramatyczne
W tym zdaniu [edited] nie rozumiem konstrukcji czasownika:
I niech nam będzie wolno zacytować w tym miejscu przestrogę Patryka de La Tour du Pin: "Wszyskie te kraje, które nie mają już legend, zostaną skazane na śmierć przemarznięcia".
Prawdopodobnie tłumaczeniem jest:
And at this point, Patrice de La Tour du Pin would quote us freely/slowly: "..."
A co to jest za forma - niech będzie zacytować? "Niech będzie" from what I know, must be an imperative of być. But why does być stand with an infinitive? Normally, the passive voice with być is constructed with a past participle in the form of zacytowany, isn't it? Apart from that, this would be translated "he shall be quoted".
I would be delighted if you clear my confused mind.
Dzięki za waszą pomoc. Tarek
We use 'niech' in commands for 3rd person but here it is used to emphasize being able to quote that - like being given to do such thing. In the sentence 'I niech nam będzie wolno zacytować...' it could be translated like this 'If it will be given to us to be able to quote...' but more clearly: 'And let us be free to quote'
"Niech" is used to form imperative or jussive. You add it to present forms of imperfective verbs or future forms of perfective verbs. In this case it is future form of the verb "być", that is "będzie".
Here you have so-called defective verb "wolno" which has a function similar to verbs but it doesn't inflect. To form past form you add "było" and to form future form you add "będzię". In present you use simply "wolno". It means that something is allowed/we can afford to do something.
It looks like that:
"Niech" (imperative/jussive) + "nam" (to us - dative) + "będzie wolno" (be allowed) + "zacytować" (to cite - infinitive)
If you look at the table, you can see the form called imperative "niech będzie wolno": https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wolno#Conjugation
So, "he shall be quoting"? Although actually, he is quoted himself?
It's "Niech nam będzie wolno" that constitutes one phrase here. "Let us be allowed to", however strange it sounds. Quite an unusual construction, but seems perfectly natural to me. Another possible 'translation': "Allow us to allow ourselves". Anyway, 'zacytować' is a separate thing.
'wolno' + infinitive = it is allowed to [verb].
You choose quite difficult things to read...
To nie tak trudne jak myślesz ... w każdym razie wierzę że tylko stawiam pytania o najtrudniejszych zdaniach. :)
It seems a bit overblown to me. You can't often hear someone who speaks like that.
I mean, yeah, there isn't really any need to do it apart from some academic writing/journalism. And even there it's not common. But when I read it, it didn't seem surprising.
This sentence has a touch of solemnity. I'd translate 'May we be free to cite...'
Dziękuję za komentarze; teraz rozumiem że znów myślałem zbyt szybko: Ach, "wolno", to znam, to bardzo łatwo!