"My younger sisters are in front of and behind me."
This answer is being marked correct as of September 2020. It felt natural to me to include 私の in that location, but is it necessary? It makes sense that it can be omitted before 妹たち because if i were talking about someone else's sisters I'd use the respectful form. But I'm not so sure what's implied if i said 前と後ろwithout further context.
が emphasizes the subject; は reminds the listener of context. 妹たちはいます = Speaking of my younger sisters, they EXIST 妹たちがいます = My younger SISTERS, exist
In this sentence, it depends on whether you are emphasizing that your younger SISTERS are in front and behind, or that your younger sisters are in FRONT and BEHIND.
妹たちは前と後ろにいます = Speaking of my younger sisters, they are in FRONT of and BEHIND me. 前と後ろに妹たちがいます = In front of me and behind me are my SISTERS.
Please correct me if I'm wrong :)
Logicsama: Almost. The younger sisters are the grammatical subject of the English sentence but because they are mentioned first they are also assumed to be the topic. If the topic were their whereabouts, we would most likely say something like 'Those in front of and behind me are my younger sisters'.
It depends on what you will put focus on.
On duolingo's sentence the focus are on the places, on your sentence the focus are on the sisters. We always must remember that the particle "ha" does not express the subject, just puts the focus on the most important information to the one who is talking.
On duolingo's sentece we know that the sisters are the subject since they are before the "ga", but at same time the focus is on the places where they are, and the "ha" expresses this.
I'm not anything close to fluent in Japanese, but I'll try to give a more helpful answer.
は here is doing basically the same thing as when it replaces が; a phrase is marked as a topic, rather than taking its usual place in the syntax of the sentence. When that's a subject or a direct object, you lose the が or を, but something like に is kept before the は. So 「前と後ろにはいもうとたちがいます。」 is literally something like "As for in front of and behind me, there's my little sisters." One could instead topicalize the sisters: 「いもうとたちは前と後ろにいます。」 "As for my little sisters, they're in front of and behind me." These different versions of the sentence might perhaps answer the questions "Who is near you?" and "Where are your siblings?" respectively.
[mae to ushiro ni] is the main focus of that sentence. The whole sentence is literally saying something like "As for what's in my front and back, it's my sisters". Except obviously, you don't translate it into something stupid like that, instead you translate it into something that makes sense in English.
I did not put the は btw and it was wrong.. I never know when they want me to put
It's not always necessary to indicate plurality in Japanese.
If you think about it, why do we (in English and other languages) distinguish between one and two, but not two and three (or any other number)? As native Japanese speaker sora_Japan pointed out in another thread, two is closer to one than it is to a billion.
Just food for thought!
If anyone's having trouble with this sentence like I have for the longest time, think of it like this:
私の前と後ろ (Watashi no mae to ushiro) = my front and back.
私の前と後ろには (Watashi no mae to ushiro ni wa) = in the front and back of me.
私の前と後ろには妹たちがいます (Watashi no mae to ushiro ni wa imouto-tachi ga imasu) = in my front and back, my little sisters exist. (aka: my little sisters are in front of and behind me)
Then just omit the 私の because we already know that "I" am the speaker.
I'm not a native speaker but, usually the topic goes in front of the sentence, and time and date would go before that. In this example, in front of and behind are the main topics. You are answering the question of "Who are in front of and behind you?" The topic here is asking the location of someone. Then you answered it with "The people who are in front of and behind me are my younger sister." Hope this work.
"No" is usually used as an indication of possession, while "ni" is used indicating location. What you probably refer to is the "...の前と後ろに..." structure, right? (Somebody)の(前と後ろ)に(Verb) This means, (Somebody)(Has)(The front and back)(At)(Verb). It's quite tricky to translate to English, becouse in English we use ""I am at your back", while Japanese uses the "I have your back" structure. As far as I know.
Both are right and depends on the situation and context that you are in. For exemple, using が with the sisters, you are making them the subject of the verb いる (which is the case here). If you mark them with は, then they would be the topic of the sentence.
In this case what is marked with は is "in front and behind me", so that is the topic. You are making a statement about "in front and behind me":
前と後ろには妹たちがにいます。 = About "in front and behind me", my younger sisters exists.
If you use は with the sisters then now they are the topic.
妹たちは前と後ろにいます。About my younger sisters, they are in front and behind me.
Uh, I'm not completely sure why you thought that would work. You said: たくさん (a lot of) • 妹 (younger sister) • が (subject marker) • あります (to exist). So you said "A lot of younger sisters exist." Not only that, you used あります which is for nonliving objects rather than います for living or once living. Last time I checked, younger sisters are living beings.
Now, here's the correct solution duo presents. [There is first an omitted/ uneeded with context 私の meaning "my"] •前 (front) • と (and) • 後ろ (behind) • には (location + topic marker) • 妹たち (younger sisters) • が (subject marker) • います (to exist for LIVING objects). So literally, this means, "In front and behind (of me), younger sisters are existing.
If you still have any further questions as to why this is the correct solution or just something else, feel free to ask!
前 you can remember this kanji by two arms reaching out of desire with a line under, below that is the moon radical and to the right of it is リ in katakana, kf anyone could make a story about the components that relate to rhe meaning or pronouciation of まえ前 it would be even easier to remember next is 後ろ it consists of 彳幺夊 And いもうと妹女未
This question actually doesn't make much sense. There are different types of particles; "in a nutshell" there are more than "one type of particle": に is needed to make the sentence grammatically correct, while は only marks a topic (in this sentence). Since に marks a grammatical function but は doesn't, the latter can be omitted but the former cannot. Thus your question would make more sense if it were "What's the difference between using には or just に.
In this case the only difference is: using only に you are simply saying the location of existence of somebody/something (いる, ある); using には you are also marking this location as the topic of you sentence.
庭に = In the yard... 庭には = As for "in the yard"...
Also, there are some particles that are usually omitted when placed right before は, but there are some that you probably won't see being omitted that often such as で and に. So you'll see plenty of では and には.
I can't assure 100% if it is grammatically wrong but it definitely doesn't sound natural. The は particle marks the topic of the sentence, so everything that comes before it is related to what comes after it (like a commentary to what comes before). In your example the whole sentence except the verb precedes は. See why it doesn't really makes sense?
If only 妹たち was marked with は then it would be : About my younger sisters, they are in front of and behind me.
If only 前と後ろに was marked with は then it would be: About "in front of and behind me", my younger sisters exist there.
Make sure to check the comments, this has been answered a few times on this page already
は marks the topic of the sentence; the contextual information for what you are about the comment on
に is the location particle, marking the place of existence
Either に or には is fine, depending on if the location is known or unknown information and you want it to be the topic of the sentence or not, but the location must be marked with at least に here to show the relationship the noun has to the verb.
You've swapped the location with the subject
に marks the location (which you've given to 'younger sisters')
が marks the subject, the do-er or be-er of a sentence, the thing existing (which you've given to 'front and behind')
You've essentially written "There is a front and behind on my younger sisters" though you've used the animate verb います which has a weird implication that the concepts of "front and behind" are animated/living things
You can reorder the sentence but you need to make sure the particles remain attached to the proper words otherwise the meaning will completely change. Topic particle は should also remain at the beginning of the sentence, and while it can be doubled with a location, with a subject or object particle it would replace them so you have to choose either the new information subject が or old information topic は for "sisters"
妹たち (が or は) 前と後ろにいます - My sisters (subject) exist (animate) in front of and behind (location)
に marks the location of existence (as well as time, destination of movement and indirect object in other contexts)
は marks the topic, the old/known information that provides context for what you are about to say. It can also be used to mark contrast (it is this, but not that).
前と後ろ - in front of and behind (me) に - location は - topic
妹たちがいます - my younger sisters exist
There are some explanations in the comments above already, do you have further questions?