Translation:I do not understand the Japanese class at all. I am in trouble.
It looks like for "states of being", you can either use the past tense (almost like "I started being in trouble.") or the present progressive (ています) interchangeably. At least, that's how well I'm understanding it so far. It's used in some other sentences here as well, with more helpful answers in the discussion.
Exactly. This pair lists cause and effect (因果関係). "I can't understand anything, so I'm in deep doo-doo."
English "I'm in deep trouble now," however, usually means because of something I have done. Of course, signing up for a class without demanding a placement test COULD quality.
BUT automatically translating 困った as "It is me who is in trouble" can, ahem, get one into trouble. What it means are things like "Houston, we have a problem, "That bothers/troubles/annoys me" (victimhood), etc.
The classic example is 困った人—"troubling" in the sense of being stubborn, lazy, obstinate, inconsiderate, unreasonable, a PITA.
Note: "People in trouble" is usually rendered as 困っている人(々).
Yes, you are correct! で would indicate the tool by which the class was taught (In that case, that tool would have been the Japanese language). Whereby, の indicates the type of language class it was. So, for this sentence, の is the appropriate particle to use because we are discussing the type/subject of the class (Japanese class).
For example, if I were to say, "The Japanese class was taught in English." It would be 日本語 の クラスは英語 で 教えられました。(Nihongo no kurasu wa eigo de oshie raremashita.)
Sorry, I misunderstood you earlier, Kevkingofthesea. I thought you were saying that the current sentence needed a で instead of a の. So, I was explaining that で can indicate the location of a thing (so long as it is not the location to which, but rather at which.) It also functions as you were saying to AmbassadorTigger and CensiLI. Here are some lingots in appreciation of your expanding the opportunity for others to understand. :)
You're right. It was a bad explanation. ^^;
Mentioning the particle で would have been much more beneficial. で can indicate many things, one of which is the tool or method of facilitation. It is notably absent from the sentence. So, we are looking at:
日本語の vs 日本語で.
However, I'm not sure I could just swap out one particle for the other the way the sentence above is written. Possibly. But, I'm not advanced enough to say for sure. I would most likely have written the two concepts like this:
So, instead of 日本語のじゅぎょうがぜんぜんわかりません。(A class about the Japanese language.)
The sentence could have been 日本語で教えられるクラスです (A class taught using the Japanese language).
I think literally translating it, "こまっています" means I am in trouble, and " こまりました" means I got in trouble, but those two translations would be taken as the same in English. I guess it's "こまりました" because the class is already over, so it's like, I got into trouble because I didn't understand anything of the class.
Adan's explanation is correct from the grammar viewpoint, but in practice...
Japanese speech is laden with non-polite past few forms expressing strong emotions
困った！What a bother!
やった！Success! High-five time! I'm done!
しまった！Oops! Now I've done it!
Watch for them, anime lovers.