Latin for Duolingo: Adjectives II, Lesson 1
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. This is an ongoing, unofficial course in Latin; if you would like to catch up with previous lessons, you can find a directory, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at these links:
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- Previous lesson: Relative & Indefinite 3
Last lesson, as I was attempting to explain indefinite pronouns, I realized that there needs to be another series of adjective lessons, beyond just the basics. If you want to review those basics, here are the previous adjective lessons: adjectives lesson 1 and adjectives lesson 2 There are two main kinds of adjectives: 1st/2nd declension adjectives such as bonus, bona, bonum; and 3rd declension adjectives such as gravis, grave. The endings we’ll see in today’s lesson will be the same for the most part; some irregular adjectives of the 1st/2nd declension have “-ius” endings in the gen. s. and “-i” endings in the dat. s. Some 3rd declension adjectives have 1 or 3 endings for the nom. s. instead of the usual 2. Most adjectives can be turned into adverbs, which we’ll look at more in a future lesson.
durus, a, um = hard, harsh, unrefined
laetus, a, um = happy, glad, joyful (also felix, beatus)
plenus, a, um = full (w. gen. or abl.)
primus, a, um = first, the first (usually of a series of more than two)
publicus, a, um = public, belonging to the people/state
secundus, a, um = second (of a series of more than two), following, favorable, successful
solus, a, um = alone, only (gen. s. “solius”, dat. s. “soli”)
tertius, a, um = third
totus, a, um = whole, all of (gen. s. “totius,” dat. s. “toti”)
tardus, a, um = slow
tutus, a, um = safe
celer, celeris, celere (also velox, velocis; citus, a, um) = quick, fast, swift
levis, e = light (in weight), of little importance
mollis, e = gentle, soft, pleasant
Hic est primus elephantus quem vidi. = This is the first elephant that I have seen.
Lucia omnium discipulorum prima stat, Marcus secundus, et Paula tertia. = Lucia stands first of all the students, Marcus second, and Paula third.
Illa est secunda pars. = That is the second part.
Venti secundi erant. = The winds were favorable. (secundus is related to sequor, meaning following, and thus, the winds were coming from behind, which is favorable for sailing. We sometimes see “proelio secundo” meaning “in a battle with a favorable outcome ... for my side”)
Tertia hora est. = It is three o-clock/ the third hour.
Gaius solus laborat. = Gaius is working alone.
Totam noctem expectaverunt. = They waited for the whole night.
Totum oppidum adest. = The whole town is here/ is present.
Poculum plenum aquae (aquā) est. = The cup is full of water.
Urbs plena hominum (hominibus) est. = The city is full of people.
Liberi tuti sunt. = The children are safe.
Charta levis, sed liber gravis est. = The paper is light, but the book is heavy.
Res non est gravis/magna, sed levis. = The subject is not important, but trivial.
Ferrum durum, sed lana mollis est. = Iron is hard, but wool is soft.
Illo tempore, vita dura erat. = At that time, life was hard.
Mulier est mollis. = The woman is gentle (kind, pleasant, etc.; “mulier” is said to be derived from the comparative form of mollis, “mollior” meaning softer or weaker).
Puella fortis et laeta erat. = The girl was strong and happy.
Lepus celer, sed testudo tarda est. = The hare is fast, but the turtle is slow.
Avis celeris celeriter volat. = The swift bird flies swiftly. (note f. form of celer)
Computatrum meum tardum est. = My computer is slow.
Res publica = the republic, the public affair, the state, the commonwealth
hortus publicus = a park, a public garden
Ad hortum publicum ibo. = I will go to the park.
Molle erat ambulare in horto publico. = It was pleasant to walk in the park.
tela totius terrae = world wide web (lit. web of the whole earth)
Evangelium secundum Marcum = The gospel according to Mark (secundum here is a preposition/adverb)
Soli Deo gloria. = Glory to God alone. (Demonstrating the irregular dat. s. ending of solus)
Primum, non nocere. (Hippocrates) = First of all, do no harm. (though this is the adverb form)
In the next lessons we’ll continue adding adjectives, and introduce the idea of comparative and superlative adjectives.
Valete et bonam fortunam!