https://www.duolingo.com/Keith_APP

は vs が

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I have seen many questions about は vs が or vs other particles or no particle. A dedicated discussion is perhaps helpful. At least I would have something to refer to constantly. Below is my reply to a sentence which a few people found useful. I am not native Japanese nor linguist but just another learner. It would be great if native Japanese would join to help explaining.

The first thing I want to say beforehand is は is NOT a subject indicator (with respect to the verb). It has no direct relationship with the phrase before it being the subject or not. Forget about it if you would like to move on.

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は is used for making a topic, so you use は when you do need to make something a topic. That's it.

今日 買い物に 行きます。

I go shopping today.

(Today is just an information)

今日は パスタを 食べたい。

I want to eat pasta today.

(More precisely Talking about today, I want to eat pasta. Perhaps I usually eat rice everyday, today is special and I want to bring it up as a topic.)

今日は きれいですね。

You are beautiful today!

(…What? Did I use to look awful?)

July 14, 2017

10 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/magicallymagic

Good post!

The easiest way I've found to think of は and が is this: は establishes the context of a sentence, while が is what the sentence is about.

It helps a lot to teach yourself to think of は as a way of saying "as for [preceding thing]":

私は行きます [わたしはいきます]= "As for me, I'll go."

And also to remember how は and が work with adjectives. Specifically, I've found 好き (likable) and 嫌い (unlikable, which is actually too soft a term to really capture the meaning, but is the closest we have in adjective form) to be very helpful:

私は本が好きです [わたしはほんがすきです] = "As for me, books are likable." / "I like books."

彼はおかしが嫌いです [かれはおかしがきらいです] = "As for him, sweets are unlikable." / "He hates sweets."

As you can see with these sentences (in their more literal translations, at least), は establishes what the sentence is in reference to (the context), while が marks the subject (what it's actually about).

I'm not sure how helpful this will be to anyone else, but it's what finally helped it "click" with me, so hopefully it'll be of use to someone else. 皆頑張って [みんながんばって]!

July 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Faisane
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Nice!

One request @magicallymagic: as a public service to those of us who are just starting to learn kanji (=me) and are still struggling with kanji look-up, could you include kana, at least for the kanji not covered by the course?

July 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/magicallymagic

Of course! I edited the post to include kana versions of the sentences.

July 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Seattle_scott
Plus
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が is also used for emphasis, and "only". ぼくはパンがすきです。I like bread. Wa and Ga can be difficult. There have been entire books written on it. But good start.

July 15, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Keith_APP
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Thank you magicallymagic and Scott.

I have found a website explaining about this subject. It is probably destined for teachers for N2 level ? Anyhow let's have a quick walk-through. (I will expand it.)

(1) Description for a noun

We use が when we want to enrich the description for a noun (we would use a That clause in English to do it.)

これは帽子です + 私は買いました

This is a hat + I bought it

これは私 は→が 買った帽子です

This is the hat that I bought.

(2) Contrasting

When comparing 2 things, we use は.

1.ひらがながやすいです 2.漢字がむつかしいです

1.Hiragana is easy 2.Kanji is difficult

3.ひらがなはやすいですが、漢字はむつかしいです。

3.Hiragana is easy, but Kanji is difficult

The first 2 sentences each talks about the characteristics of something. We use が. When we compare them side-by-side, as in the 3rd sentence, we use は.

Similarly,

昨日は風邪でしたが、今日は元気です

Yesterday I got a cold, but today I am fine.

This is also true when the other thing is implied.

We can say,

漢字はむつかしいです。

to indicate that we do not only mean a characteristic of Kanji is its difficulty, but we are implicitly comparing it with similar elements, say, Hiragana.

(3) At sight vs In mind

For something before us, use が;

For something out of sight, use は

そこにいすがある

There is a chair on your side (we can see the chair before us)

あなたの部屋にいすはありますか。

Is there a chair in your room ? (We are outside or far from your room)

A:彼はどこですか B:彼は教室にいます

A. Where is he? B: He is in the classroom (We do not see the person we talk about)

雨は降っていますか。

Is it raining? (We cannot see the weather outside)

雨が降っていますよ。

Oh it is raining! (We can see the weather outside)

(4) Emphasis

We use が for emphasis. See the example of Scott above. (Thanx)

http://jn2et.com/Zakki/z11-ha-ga.html

July 16, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/naoko501909

A small correction: easy is やさしい. やすい is cheap.

July 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/toody0
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I think this is the only video that you need to watch in order to fully understand the difference between は and が. She is native Japanese and you can learn much more then that from this video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FknmUij6ZIk

November 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Harmony904960

OP, I like your last example there! Yes be careful with using は in a context like that, you can accidentally be rude, lol.

July 24, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Harald535768

according to my jap class teacher, a native japanese that mostly follows みんなのにほご, he said が if not using for contrasting, equivalent to "but" in English, then it is a particle replacing は for すきです / きらいです / じょうずです / へたです / います / あります / わかります。i read from some other website saying that が is for referring to something that is not particularly that thing. for example, raining, 雨が降っている。snowing, 雪が降っています。i buy the latter more but for beginner like me the former explanation is a good pointer to start with.

i think it is about practicing to become natural. anyway i am an absolute beginner please pardon.

October 16, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Sakata_Kintoki

The particle が is also used when answering interrogatives, since it invariably links the marked word into grammatical S-O relation with the sentence's verb.

For example: だれが田中さんですか。Who is Tanaka? 私が田中です。I am Tanaka.

だれが料理を作りますか。Who will be preparing food? 僕が作ります。I will.

That's another helpful way to think about this. In Japanese, は and が answer different questions ("Who is Tanaka?" instead of "Who are you?" which would be answered by 私は田中です) because が implies a matter-of-fact statement.

January 17, 2019
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