"I wear a blue shirt."
There are two different verbs that read as kimasu. There is 来ます (来る 'kuru' in the dictionary) which is "to come" and 着ます (着る 'kiru') which is "to wear on the upper part of the body".
So the kimasu in this sentence is related to wearing clothes.
Side note: there is a different verb for wearing things on your head like a hat. And a verb for wearing clothes below the waist like pants or shoes.
Kimasu- To come vs To wear. 1. Used with destination marker/location "ni" - To come. 2. Used with object (a thing to wear) with object marker "wo" - To wear. Great answer from - http://yesjapan.com/YJ6/question/5075/how-would-you-say-my-friend-will-come-and-wear-a-dress
It was doubtful at first, but I searched it and you can say that but i believe there are nuances.
for 青いシャツ it is adjective + noun
for 青のシャツ it is noun + possession indicator + noun
as you will read in the site linked, the latter is usually used for proper nouns or in book titles and other formal writing contexts.
also, for example if you say sth like my blue shirt, you would probably use the former since 私の青いシャツ instead of 私の青のシャツ (just a guess).
If you know mandarin, its probably the difference between 蓝色上衣 and 蓝色的上衣 - you can imagine the scenarios.