Translation:How many tables are there in the restaurant?
Why do we use the particle に in this sentence? Shouldn't it be for directions? I would have usedで instead. Is it wrong?
So here's where に and で can get a little confusing.
When there's an action verb involved, you use に to mark location if it involves a direction of movement (レストランにいきます, I'm going to the restaurant) and で if you're trying to show where you are when you're doing something (みせで本をかいました, I bought a book at the store). There are, of course, exceptions to this, but that's the easiest way to think of it.
When there's no action verb involved, such as in this sentence, に is generally used to show location instead. Other examples might be:
へやにいます = I'm in my room.
つくえのうえにあります = It's on top of the desk.
いすの下に本があります = There's a book under the chair.
へやにです is like saying "I is in my room." It's understandable, but grammatically incorrect.
です is the verb for "is" or "to be." You use it, in this context, to describe characteristics. Ex:
ほんです = It is a book.
あかいです = It is red.
かれはアメリカ人です = He is American.
います, which is the -ます form of the verb いる, is the verb that describes the existence and/or presence of animate things. It's the equivalent to ある for living critters like people or animals. When you describe the location of something, you're talking about it being present somewhere -- hence the use of いる / ある.
I'm curious what you mean by います meaning "I have." Could you provide an example of this use?
Sure, for example 犬がいます, which means 'I have a dog'. Or you can also use いません as the negative form, for example ペットがいません which means 'I don't have pets'.
Anyhow, you can be right because all my Japanese is from Duolingo...
So, in those sentences, います is still being used to demonstrate existence. 犬がいます literally means "There is a dog." But, depending on the context, it can be interpreted as "I have a dog."
Ex: If someone asked you if you had any pets, you could say 犬がいます. Or if you're about to invite someone to your home, you could say it and they'd know you're warning them that there's a dog there.
But if you're talking about something unrelated and you want to tell someone you have a dog, you'd want to use 持つ (もつ / to have or possess) so there was no confusion. If you just use いる, they'd assume you meant there was a dog somewhere nearby and you were trying to draw their attention to it.
This should qualify as a correct answer: "At the restaurant, how many tables are there?"
Technically, but the sentence may be used for reverse language study and that’s not a naturally sounding sentence.
In a vacuum, you are correct. But with a little context you are wrong. You are talking to somone about going to a restaurant. You mention that you are doing something at school. Because the other person doesn't want to confuse you when they realize they don't want to wait for a table they say, "Oh, um, at the restaurant, how many tables are there?" If they said, "How many tables are there at the restaurant?" You would first be confused about why they were asking about tables at the school because that was the topic until they changed it at the end of the sentence, instead of the beginning of the sentence.
where did the word ikutsu come from? If it was used in a previous lesson I apologize. I just can't help but feel random words are sprung on you sometimes and it's unhelpful. It's okay when it's accompanied by a picture or the kanji but when it isn't it's extremely confusing.
"this restaurant" would be このレストラン". Since there's no demonstrative adjective, it's translated as "the/a restaurant", because the sentence isn't referring to a specific restaurant.
Suggestion for Duolingo: Make this a more practical sentence and have us learn how to ask if there are tables available in the restaurant.
So far, Duolingo lacks on the practicality aspect. It teaches us how to say that there are 9 desks in the room or that I go to bed at 12am but no, I don't want to wake up... Or there are 5 birds (where?).
While some stuff is good and practical, some of these sentences could be written so they are more practical....
I wish it was a bit more geared towards real life scenarios.
I think it technically would be, but the particle wa is often used in speech instead of ga for various reasons. I think because it rolls easier off the tongue or sounds more natural. I could be wrong though
I used the word bank to answer and it did not list ikutsu in kana or kanji at all. A glitch?
Jeez, why Duo still has no Japanese courses for Russian speakers, I'm so bored with all these "are there" and "over there"... In Russian I would type "Сколько столиков в ресторане?", using just 4 words instead of 8.
I put "how many tables are in this restaurant?" and it put me as wrong, really duolingo?
OF course it's a just one more kind of conversation you will have with your japaneses friends someday...
If you're being sarcastic, that's shameful. In fact, if you want to book a table in a restaurant, you will use this sentence. Although the word "available" isn't there it's implicit. Anyway, if it wasn't it would be easy to just research for the word "available" and turn "レストランにテーブルはいくつありますか？" in ""レストランに[available]テーブルはいくつありますか？ ".
Btw, you can change the words and use the strucutre for other situations. Now you know that if you want to know how many things are in somewhere, you have to use "[place]に[things]はいくつありますか？". It's very useful. For example, "How many jobs are there in the company?", "How many people are there in your house/family?", etc, etc. You just need to learn the words you want and use it.