"There are two chairs."
Flag it, and tell the moderators that way. They don't read these comments.
Duolingo should teach Japanese grammar first before showing these sentences
So whenever we are stating an amount of something we must use the が particle? Or am I wrong?
The が particle in Duolingo version of Japanese is most often used in a construct X+が+あります, which means 'there is/are X'. The amount when is used within this expression is called 'extent'. It is a nominal, answering 'how many', 'how much', 'how long', or 'how far', that links to the verbal predicate (あります). So you get: X+が+extent+あります.
Therefore, no, the use of が is irrelevant to the expression of amount.
が indicates the subject of the sentence. I guess you should use it in these cases, but don't take it for granted, I'm just guessing.
が does not indicate the subject. It can, but it's not its grammatical role. Consider this: じかんがありますか？ ('Do you have time?'). Or: りんごがたべたいのですけど. The person speaking apologizes and emphasizes that he wants to eat an apple (not something else). It's not that an apple wants to eat the person speaking. The subject in Japanese sentences is often omitted. It's a very bad idea to fit Japanese into English grammar categories.
Can someone please tell me why the numbers pronounced differently then when they are on their own?
There are two systems of numerals in Japanese. One series is authentic, another is borrowed from Chinese. When the numbers are on their own, the Chinese sequence is used (with few exceptions like it's preferred to use よん instead of し). With counters the authentic sequence is usually used.
I already forgot what the function of the second to last one is (before the desu)
The end says a(あ) ri (り) ma (ま) su (す) , which apparently refers to an objects existence
あります (arimasu) literally means "to be". ある(aru) is the root verb. "to exist"
いす二つ should be correct as well. The DL sentence is more like saying "as for chairs, there are two"
Futatsu, this is how you say 2 when it's attached to the general purpose counter (tsu)
1 = 一つ = hitotsu 2 = 二つ = futatsu 3 = 三つ = mittsu 4 = 四つ = yottsu 5 = 五つ = itsutsu 6 = 六つ = muttsu 7 = 七つ = nanatsu 8 = 八つ = yattsu 9 = 九つ = kokonotsu
So わ is for counting animals (e.g. 七わ) and つ for counting objects (e.g. 七つ)? Is it correct?
わ is specifically the counter for birds (and rabbits I think?). The counter for most other small animals is hiki (ひき or 匹). つ is the general-purpose counter. Don't get too hung up on counters for now though, there are so many you'll be discouraged :P