"Those shoes are orange."
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Your examples are correct, however the grammar terms are not and can potentially confuse people who are learning the language.
この is used with nouns, such as このシャツ "this shirt."
これ is used with adjectives, such as これは黒い "this is black"
ここ is used for locations, such as ここはいます "I am here"
The way Japanese treats colors is rather more involved than in English. For one, only the five primary colors—red, blue, yellow, black, and white—can be turned from nouns to adjectives by just adding い. Every other color, such as gray, magenta, teal, and of course orange, can't be adjectives and can only be nouns, which is why you have to add a の relational marker instead.
Thats not even getting into the fact that there are two types of adjectives in Japanese, the i-adjectives and the na-adjectives; as you can probably tell, those five primary colors are i-adjectives.
You can know from the conversational context. Duo doesn't have it for these sentences, so I usually go with what makes sense for the scenario in my mind. Very rarely do I get questions wrong doing this. If knowing whether it's a plural or singular noun in a conversation, either the other person will specify or you can ask.
Are you asking what the difference is between the two or asking what the difference is from これ・この and それ・その. Eh, I'll answer both.
あれ and あの both describe something that's far away from both the listener and the speaker; they roughly translate to "that [thing] over there" in English. Compare that to これ・この "this [thing] near me, the speaker" and それ・その "that [thing] near you, the listener".
As for which to use, あれ is a pronoun and can stand on its own in a sentence, whereas あの is an adjective and has to be attached to a noun.
Im not sure what you are referring to exactly, but there is no 'woha' word here. The 'wa' ( written with the 'ha' character) in this sentence is the topic marker particle. It is used to denote what is being discussed in genreal and can be placed after any phrase. If you are reffering to other lessons that talk about wearing clothing then there are indeed different verbs for 'to wear' depending on how the clothing is worn. Chiefly if it is from the shoulders (kiru or kimasu) or below the waist (hakuru or hakimasu). The 'wo' in that case is used to denot the direct-object in the sentence, it follows the noun that the verb is acting upon.