"I am too young to die."
Übersetzung:Ich bin zu jung zum Sterben.
My answer was "Ich bin zu jung zu sterben", using "sterben" as a verb, but rejected. A suggested correct answer is "Ich bin zu jung zum Sterben", which empoloys "sterben" as a noun.
I would be greatful, if anyone could explain why "Ich bin zu jung zu sterben" is wrong for the translation of "I am too young to die".
I'm English and I can't give a definitive answer, but I answered "Ich bin zu jung, um zu sterben" which was accepted. I think the "um" makes what follows into an adverbial phrase ... or something like that!
Thanks for the very clear explanation, I got it. The word "um" would be the key in this phrase, as you pointed out. Now I remembered the famous saying of Socrates: "Wir leben nicht um zu essen, sondern wir essen, um zu leben".
I've seen many accepted sentences without "um", and on the contrary, those rejected "um".
Does anyone know when should we use it or not?
Ich habe viele akzeptierte Sätze ohne "um". Und doch haben sie "um" abgelehnt.
Weiss jemand wann söllten wir "um" nutzen oder ?
Can you give me examples of your "zu" sentences without "um"? Because there are nearly endless possibilities. :)
In general you use "um ... zu" together for final clauses (Finalsatz in German). It is a subordinate clause to express the purpose / goal / consequence. The main clause contains the action (to reach the goal) / the circumstances / preconditions. It is an infinitive construction. There are others that do not need the "um".
In the example above you say that you are too young to die. The main clause contains the circumstance (the person is too young) and the purpose (to die) in the subordinate clause. Therefore it is "Ich bin zu jung, um zu sterben" or "Ich bin zu jung zum Sterben." "Zum" is the concatenation of the preposition "zu" and the article" dem". Sometimes you can replace "um zu" with "zum", if you replace the verb with a noun ("sterben" -> "Sterben"). Be careful, it is not always possible and sometimes changes the meaning. For example "Zum Schlafen gehe ich nach Hause" (I usually go home to sleep") and "Ich gehe nach Hause, um zu schlafen" (I go home in order to sleep) have different meanings (I tried to catch the meaning of the German sentence with the translation in brackets).
==> Use "um .. zu" in subordinated clauses (separated by a comma) that express a purpose. Search for "Infinitivsatz", "Infinitivgruppe" and/or "Finalsatz" for more information.
My tip: If you say in English "in order to" (do sth.) or if you can replace "to" with "in order to" (do sth.) without changing the meaning, it is always a "um .. zu" construction in German. And always use the version where you are sure it is correct.
@ACardAttack: The current default translation is "Ich bin zu jung zum Sterben.". There is no "zu" but "zum". That is something totally drifferent and a correct sentence. Because of the "zum" the next word is a noun. Therefore the verb "sterben" becomes the with a capital S written noun "Sterben".
An "um ... zu" constructuion is: "Ich bin zu jung, um zu sterben." There are two "zu", but the last one belongs to the "um ... zu" construction. The first "zu" describes "jung" / "young".
My answer was "Ich bin zu jung zum sterben." It was accepted. I think the wrong word was the second "zu" in your sentence. I do not know why in the answer from Duolingo the word "sterben" a noun is. I make a feedback. For me is this wrong too.
You can say "Ich bin zu jung zum sterben." or "Ich bin zu jung, um zu sterben.". Both sentences are correct.
My first language is german, but i am not an expert in this. I know only "zum" is a short word for "zu dem".
Wenn man Großschreibung berücksichtigt, dann wäre "Ich bin zu jung zum sterben" falsch. Nach "zum" folgt ein Substantiv (noun), welches folglich großgeschrieben wird: "Ich bin zu jung zum Sterben".
"Ich bin zu jung, um zu sterben" ist natürlich ebenfalls richtig.
(Deutsch ist meine Muttersprache.)
Hallo chnoxis, vielen Dank für Ihre nette Antwort.
My temporal understanding is that "um" is necessary before "zu sterben", and "Ich bin zu jung zum Sterben" is also correct as you pointed out.
It is my understanding that Duolingo is not so strict for capitalization (even in German), thus "Ich bin zu jung zum sterben" would be accepted as well as "Ich bin zu jung zum Sterben". (My German-Japanese dictionary says "Sterben" can be used as a noun, but I am not sure about the usage by native speakers, of course you know much better about it than I.)
Thank you again for your comment. Alles gute!
You are welcome! :)
The capitalization in Duolingo does not exist. You can write the full the sentences in capital letters too. With or without dot and comma. It would be accepted.
Your German-Japanese dictionary has right. I now looked in the dictionary "Duden". This is a dictionary for questions in correct spelling and the german language in general. The word "Sterben" as a noun is in some sentences correct. There are some examples: "Im Sterben liegen." (To be dying.) / "Das grosse Sterben." (The great mortality in the dark age. -- The pest) / "Es ist zum Sterben langweilig." (Colloquial for "It is very, very boring.") The sentence from Duolingo is possibly correct. German is a difficult language. For some native speakers too. :)
Thank you again for your informative reply, including some expressions with "Sterben" as a noun.
Yes, I know the "Duden", the standard of German dictionary, and "Duden Textprüfung" (http://www.duden.de/rechtschreibpruefung-online) is one of my favorite (and useful) websites.
The reason of my answer's rejection would be lack of "um" before "zu sterben". I will not forget to add "um", when I come across a similar sentence.
Vielen Dank und schönen Sonntag! Gruß aus Japan.
When you have german words like "um, am, im, zum, zur ..." you have a following noun (this could be also a "normally" verb as a noun).
When you have "zu / um zu" a verb has to follow:
E.g. I take the car to drive around - Ich nehme das Auto, um herum zu fahren
Thanks, Sissi990, I am sure to insert "um" !
Tut mir leid, hier wieder mal zu kritisieren, aber die Version "zu jung zu sterben" ist durchaus auch richtig. Es muss nicht immer mit "um zu" verbunden sein. Man sagt auch "Es ist Zeit zu gehen", also Verb mit "zu" und nicht nominalisiert. Ich bin ein alter Deutschlehrer und sollte es also wirklich wissen! Man sagt auch: Ich habe Grund zu lachen. - oder: Ich habe Grund zu weinen. Also kann es auch heißen: Ich bin zu jung zu sterben. ("um" muss nicht dabei stehen!)
Adverb zu = too
Präposition zu = to
Es ist zu weit zum Laufen. = It is too far to walk.
Das ist zu schön, um wahr zu sein. = That is too good to be true.
Gib es mir, wenn es nicht zu heiß ist. = Give it to me, if it's not too hot.
HINWEIS: "Too" kann auch "auch" bedeuten.
Z.B.: Ich möchte auch nach Frankreich gehen.
= I want to go to France, too. = I also want to go to France.