"He has bread."
Translation:Il a du pain.
Du means "some" in this case. Let me explain: Du pain=some bread.
However, there are different forms of "some"
to be used before a masculine noun: du (For example-du lait) to be used before a feminine noun: de la (For example-de la baguette) to be used before a noun starting with a vowel: d' (For example-d'orange) to be used before a plural noun: des (For example-des champignons)
"le pain" (the bread) is a masculine noun, so you have to use "du" in front of it. Unfortunately, you will have to memorize the gender of the nouns in french for grammer, because it would be strange if one said "de la pain". Plural nouns or nouns starting with a vowel are however easy to deal with.
Feminine partitive in front of a word starting with a vowel sound is "de l'" = de l'orange (not d'orange)
In addition, "some" + plural noun does not always translate to "des" + plural noun:
- I hear (some) birds singing = j'entends des oiseaux chanter
- some birds are singing = il y a des oiseaux qui chantent
- some birds have blue feathers = certains oiseaux ont des plumes bleues
When the object is not countable: meaning "some bread" or "a piece of bread".
"du" is a contraction of de-le, ie to be used with masculine singular nouns: du pain, de la soupe
when the sentence is not in the negative form: il a du pain -> il n'a pas DE pain.
I also think that the sentence should be clarified in english by saying "some" bread
However, in english its unnatural to say some bread. In french, its just a slightly bit more different. Just remember to add "some" (du/de la/des/d') in front of a noun if you are not adding un/une or le/la/les/l'