I'm a native Dutch speaker, its the same in Dutch. "Geht ihr?" could be literaly translated as "go you?", which would mean "Are you going?" Let's suppose you're at a party and see two people getting ready to go home. You could ask them "Geht ihr?" as a way to initiate a last conversation with them.
Yes, I believe that is correct. Ihr is also a familiar form as I understand it but plural, so it's not the way you'd ask the board of directors, or distinguished personages. "Gehen Sie" would serve there, unless you also had to add in a bunch of honorifics. Sehr geehrte, Doktor, Professor Muckedy Mucks gehen Sie?
- Sentence fragments are language too. We use them all the time in all the languages I know of.
- Neither "Geht ihr?" nor "Do you go?" is a sentence fragment. Both have a subject and a verb, which is what defines a sentence. You may object to the lack of context, but these are not meant to be stories, just language practice.
Imagine you're in a conversation and someone is talking about habitually going somewhere. You turn to one of the others and you say, "Do you go?" Perhaps it would make more sense if you said, "Do you go, too?" The key is that it would be habitual, or at least frequent. "We go tot the beach often. How about you, do you go?"
"Are you going" is also accepted as an answer. I agree with you though, "do you go" does sound pretty stilted.
Working with "wir" or "sie" we are told that when we see these words we are to remember they are plural, and that is the way we know how to write or speak the following verb.
I'm not sure who tells anyone that.
I generally tell people to memorise verb forms together with their subject, e.g. ich bin, du bist, er ist, wir sind, ihr seid, sie sind -- so that if you hear wir you automatically know that the verb form is sind because you've heard wir sind so many times.
Not because wir is plural or anything like that.
So the plurality is important.
Now we have to ignore the plurality when we want to use "ihr?"
Yes. Exactly. Ignore plurality completely. Just think of whether the subject is ich or whether it's du or .... Just learn six separate forms.
When we start learning a new language, our brains have difficulty with sorting out the sounds. That's natural. It takes a while to develop an "ear". I just now listened to both the "male" and "female" voices speaking this sentence, and I assure you that both say "ihr" very clearly.
The vowel in "er" is a short "e" sound, like "eh", while the vowel in "ihr" is a long "e" sound, like "ee". The "r" doesn't sound anything like an English "r", but more like "uh", so "er" is "eh-uh" and "ihr" is "ee-uh". I realize that none of this may be of help to you if your English is not strong.
Anyhow, keep listening, it will come.
As an English speaker learning German, I find it so much easier to just literally translate the phrase and extrapolate its meaning into English, i.e with "Geht ihr?" meaning "Go you?" - I literally translate it and extrapolate its meaning as "Are you going?".
When used in conjunction with "Geht ihr zum Park?" - Do you go to the park? / Are you going to the park?
ez, but also not. Curse you German. Shakes fist
It depends entirely on what you are trying to convey. I count seven different examples given in these comments of correct and conversational use of "Do you go?" It is used when discussing a recurring event.
Here is one example I posted last October:
Hans: "My sister gives a big birthday party for her husband every year. She always invites me, but not my partner".
Karl: "Do you go?"
if its the polite form
ihr used to be used as a polite pronoun, presumably on the model of French, but that was centuries ago. You won't come across that usage except in period dramas or the like.
Nowadays, the polite pronoun is Sie (always capitalised), which works grammatically like sie (they).
ihr is plural and informal.