Enkel, enkele, elk, elke, ieder, iedere?
Let me see if I am understanding this right (I got some help from https://www.duolingo.com/comment/7880296):
(1) enkel = only/just
("You only hear cows" = "Je hoort enkel koeien")
(2) enkele = a few/some
("You hear a few cows" = "Je hoort enkele koeien")
(3) een enkele = a single
("You hear a single cow" = "Je hoort een enkele koe")
(4) elk= every/each, for het words, usually for things
("Every egg" = "Elk ei")
(4) elke = every/each, for de words, usually for things
("Every apple" = "Elke appel")
(5) ieder = every/each, for het words, usually for people
("Every girl" = "Ieder meisje")
(6) iedere = every/each, for de words, usually for people
("Every boy" = "Iedere jongen")
So elk(e) and ieder(e) follow de/het rules, but enkel/enkele are different words. Also, the use of elke vs. iedere depends ONLY on whether I am talking about people or things, and NOT on whether I am saying "each" or "every."
Is this correct? If not, which parts are not quite right? Thank you in advance :)
- De appel - Elke appel
You can use ieder(e)/elk(e) interchangeably. Some people only have a preference to use it like you describe.
I agree. I had to check a Dutch grammar site to be sure... but there is no formal rule to make a distinction.
However (I am repeating the grammar site), some people apply the distinction as you have written it down:
5/6--> ieder(e) for persons
4/4--> elk(e) for non-persons and small groups
But it is not a formal rule.
I look forward to answers of native speakers. Thank you for working out the problem! Have a lingot.
Thanks for the lingot! After being quite frustrated I found a few articles that I think were helpful:
Elk(e) and ieder(e) http://www.dutchgrammar.com/en/?n=Pronouns.Id05
Enkel/enkele and enig(e) http://www.dutchgrammar.com/en/?n=Pronouns.id12
^ "Enkele means 'a few'... Note that enkel can also function as an adjective (meaning 'single'). While the pronoun enkele(n) can only refer to plural nouns, the adjective enkel(e) can also refer to single nouns."
^ "enige can be used as a more formal form of wat... Enige is most common in questions, where it can be compared with English 'any'."
Weinig/weinige (not completely related to my question but I also struggled with this) http://www.dutchgrammar.com/en/?n=Pronouns.Id14
^ "We do not inflect weinig (it does not receive an -e at the end) unless we place it between an article and a noun."
Hopefully this is helpful to you too :)