Try this one.
It is quite easy to get answers to your general grammar questions by doing a simple Internet search. This one came up when I searched German gender rules. The comments here are great and quite helpful, but when you are looking for general grammar rules and such, an Internet search will give you multiple immediate results.
You have the cases backwards. Der for male NOMINATIVE (subject) case. Den is male accusative case and dem is male dative case.
I agree. Spanish is one of the more predictable languages for gender, but there are many exceptions to the rules. Just today I responded to a user asking why it wasn't LA día. And the are synonymous nouns with different genders as well as words which change only the gender not even the spelling to change meaning like papa and cura. The bottom line is grammatical gender has some things that may determine it in a language, but it has no real "sense" . All diminutives in German ending in chen are neuter, so the fact that Madchen is neuter follows the rules, but it is certainly otherwise counter intuitive.
Yes there are, but they are not as simple as o vs a and probably have even more exceptions. The simplest is that most nouns ending in e are feminine. Many of the others are based on endings that are longer than just one letter. All words ending with chen are neuter which explains das Mädchen. Zeug is another neuter ending. A large percentage of abstract nouns are feminine including those ending keit, heit, schaft, ung tät, ion. This link will cover them all much more extensively.
Welcome to German cases. Masculine nouns are the most declined (eg changed based on case) Der Saft es suß - The juice is sweet. The juice is sweet. Juice is the subject of the sentence so it is nominative. Ich trinke den Saft -I drink the juice. Juice is the direct object - accusative case. Ich habe es mit dem Saft - I have it with the juice. This is dative case roughly equivalent to the indirect object. Die suße des Saftes - The sweetness of the juice. This is genetive case indicating posession. If you substitute "a" (ein) in each sentence it would be ein, einen, einem, and einer respectively. It is important to understand this is specific to masculine nouns. Feminine and neuter nouns have different declinations which must be learned. For example dative case for a feminine noun is der - mit der Frau with the woman. It is the most difficult aspect of German for an English speaker to learn.
The bottom line is when you are learning a new verb in any language with grammatical gender is to learn the article with the noun. Gender often has no logic either internally or among languages. This is especially true of German which can ignore "natural" gender completely. Both Kind (child) and Madchen (girl) are neuter. But there are some indicators in SOME words that can help. For example you may know that Madchen is neuter because all nouns ending in chen are neuter. Here is a link that might help.
One of the important things you must do when you see a new word which you can interpret without looking it up ( like Industrie perhaps) is to make sure that you know what case it is in in the sentence you see it in. This is because of the confusing way the article changes in different cases. For example feminine nouns which take the article die in the Nominative case take der in the dative and genetive cases. Here is a link that helps with that.
The three gender and four cases are the most difficult thing for most German learners to master.
Wait, wait, wait. In Norwegian saft and juice are not the same. Is saft and juice the same in German or is there just not a fitting word in English? Because in Norwegian saft is what you blend with water, but juice is not supposed to be blended with water first. Or is there just no difference in German?
As far as I know, Saft. Is juice in German. I am not quite sure what you mean by mixing with water, but if you are talking about frozen concentrate or some other form of concentrated juice which you then reconstitute to serve, it is possible that this product came to Norway or to the attention of Norwegians through Germany and the German word for it was borrowed. But I drank Apfelsaft from bottles without diluting when I lived in Germany and it was what I would call Apple juice.
Okay, thanks :)! I'm not so good at explaining, but what I was trying to say was that in Norway saft and juice are two different things - juice is a drink that you don't blend with water, just drink as it is (apple juice, orange juice, etc) while saft is well, yes, a concentrated juice, I guess. You have about a fifth of your glass filled with saft and the rest is water (otherwise it would be waay too sweet). But thank you for your clarification, I think I would've been a bit confused about this if I went to Germany, hehe :)
Hi, in Germany, saft is juice: ready to use out of the bottle or box. Juice which is very sweetened and concentrated with a lot of added sugar would be Sirup. ready to drink juice with added water is -i think very german-Schorle. its diluted juice or mineral water with added taste.
There are some ways to guess the gender of nouns, but essentially you just have to memorize the definite article with the noun. But then you have to remember that these articles change based on which case the noun has in the particular sentence. When you just have the article and the noun it is nominative class, which is what you learn. Here are the case charts for the various articles and pronouns, etc.
The gender of German nouns is basically something that you need to memorize with each noun you learn. Those rules that exist have more to do with the suffixes and origins of the word then any logic based on the word's meaning. That is why Madchen is neuter. All nouns ending in chen are neuter.
But when you see a noun for the first time you have to make sure that it is singular and in the nominative or subject case. All plurals use die and some plural fotms are exactly like the singular. And the article changes differently for different cases.
Sorry. I didn't see this question when you posted it
I wish it would just explain WHY its "der" instead of "die" or "das". I feel like it should be das because we're talking about an object that obviously doesn't have a gender. I think it'd make sense to change it maybe if you're saying "the woman drinks the (die) juice" or "the man drinks the (der) juice", but when you're just saying "the juice" shouldn't it just be "das saft"? But, that's just my opinion I guess. If someone could explain this for me id appreciate it. There are a lot of comments on this thread and I'm too lazy to go through them all
I wish it would just explain WHY its "der" instead of "die" or "das". I feel like it should be das because we're talking about an object that obviously doesn't have a gender. I think it'd make sense to change it maybe if you're saying "the woman drinks the (die) juice" or "the man drinks the (der) juice", but when you're just saying "the juice" shouldn't it just be "das saft"? But, that's just my opinion I guess. If someone could explain this for me I would really appreciate it. There are a lot of comments on this thread and I'm too lazy to go through them all to find an answer lol
Welcome to the concept of grammatical gender. Most European languages use at least two different genders to refer to objects, but German has three. But you need to sort of invent another word for grammatical gender, because it really doesn't have anything to do with what you have previously understood by the word gender. This is especially true in German, because in German grammatical gender overrides natural gender. So you say Das Kind (the child) and das Mädchen (the girl) and you refer to these with a pronoun, it will be "es" or it. So in German, the words for juice and table, for example, are masculine, the words for street and clock are feminine and the words for house and car are neuter. There is no rhyme or reason based on what the objects are. There are some reasons based on whether it is an imported word or has a certain ending, but these have to be learned. Mädchen, for example, is neuter because all nouns ending in the diminutive ending chen are neuter. I have linked below the an overview of whatever patterns exist, but it's not an easy list. Essentially, you need to memorize the article with each new noun you learn, which is why you will always see it presented that way in virtually any learning program. In German, you should also check the plural when you learn a new noun, although Duo does do a section on plurals. But German doesn't have a standard way to form plurals, so there are several different patterns. Our plurals children and geese come from the Germanic roots of English. And you better buckle your seatbelt, because the ride is just beginning. German has an advanced case system, although it isn't nearly as complex as case systems can get. What this means is the way you say "the juice" changes based on whether it is the subject, direct object, indirect object or possessor. There are forms that repeat, but for a masculine noun the form is different for each of these, and for each gender plus plural has to be learned as a unit. Der Saft ist gut. The juice is good. Ich habe den Saft. I have the juice. Es is im Saft (im = in dem) It's in the juice.. Der Gerscmack des Safts - The flavor of the juice (the juice's flavor).
I'll leave the case information until when you get there, but here is an article that provides some "hacks" for figuring out German gramatical gender.