" Ich mache einen Ausflug in die Schweiz "
I don't get :(
Why is it " in die Schweiz" ? I mean why Akkusativ ? Shouldn't it be dativ "In der Schweiz" ? Here I am specifying the location of the trip so dativ should be used here . Why Akkusativ ?
"In" is a preposition that can be used either with dative or with accusative.
Dative is used if it is about location, as you say.
So you could say: "Ich mache einen Ausflug in der Schweiz."
This would mean that you are in Switzerland while saying the sentence, and you would make your trip within Switzerland (the same location).
If the sentence is about a movement with direction, however, then accusative has to be used.
"Ich mache einen Ausflug in die Schweiz",
with accusative, means that you are outside of Switzerland, and you are going to Switzerland (targeted movement).
I am in Germany now, and I would have to use the accusative: Ich mache einen Ausflug in die Schweiz.
Akkusativ oder Dativ? List of Priorities you should follow to decide which case you must use.
1- Notice that the verb in a sentence may require a certain case.
Jasmin hilft meinem Bruder. Here the verb ‘’ helfen’’ is a dativ verb, and can only be used with dativ regardless. Try to memorise most common dativ verbs like helfen.
2- Notice that the preposition in a sentence may require a certain case.
Ich gehe mit meinem Bruder ins Kino. Here, the preposition ‘’mit’’ is a dativ preposition and always must be used with dativ regardless. Try to memorise the most common dativ only prepositions.
3-) After you notice that there are no restriction due to either dativ verbs or dativ prepositions in a sentence. Try to analyze it with your logic.
3a-There are other prepositions that can be used with both akkusativ and dativ which are ‘’ in, auf, an, neben, über, vor, hinter, zwischen ‘’
The case of these prepositions is determined via the question ‘’Wo?’’ and ‘’Wohin?’’
Ask a sentence these two question and if it answers Wo?, then use dativ and the other option is; if it answers Wohin?, use akkusativ.
Because akkusativ case involves a movement mostly pointed at a direction whereas dativ involves a meaning of location. Let me give an example using preposition ‘’an’’ which can be used by both cases.
Die Wand = the wall
Die Landkarte hängt an der Wand ( dativ case, position, Wo?) - The map is hanged on the wall
Der Lehrer hängt die Landkarte an die Wand ( akkusativ case, movement, Wohin?) - The teacher is hanging the map onto the wall.
3b- There may be multiple objects in a sentence, decide which is akk and dative via meanings if above criterias are not valid, then you must differentiate the main object and the secondary object.
Main object is supposed to be the object which is taking a role in an action directly or something represents the main action. The secondary object is the object that you use as an additional.
Ich schenke meiner Oma eine Katze -I present my grandmother a cat.
A cat here is object being directly in the action, carried, transferred, under movement or under effect whereas grandmother is a secondary object which does not represent the main object but has relations with the main object. You can find more sources on google about how to differentiate main and secondary ( or direct and indirect object)