"The man's long sword is big."
Translation:Valo korze rōva issa.
I don't understand why the adjective "big" is rōva in this case, I am a bit confused with all the forms it can take.
Let’s see some examples of rōva with vala which is a more “standard” lunar noun:
**a**issa the man is big (nominative)
**e**urnen I see the big man (accusative)
**o**korzī urnen I see the big man’s sword (genitive)
Here (because of my careful selection of noun) it can be seen that the endings of both adjective and noun are similar. rōva is modifying a lunar noun, and its agreement pattern is similar to the noun ending pattern of the noun itself.
Like vala, korze is lunar, but it belongs to a different pattern group (aka a different declension) than vala. Here are the two of them side by side:
- vala | korze (nominative)
- vale | korzī (accusative)
- valo | korzo (genitive)
However, the adjective rōv- still follows its own pattern, so let’s put it in with these:
- rōva vala | rōva korze (nominative)
- rōve vale | rōve korzī (accusative)
- rōvo valo | rōvo korzo (genitive)
In all of these the adjective is said to agree with the noun, even where the ending is not identical. This is because they each have the right ending for the particular gender and case (nominative, accusative, genitive) for the pattern they follow.
And so for a couple of korze example sentences:
- Valo korze rōva issa. The man’s long sword is big. (nominative)
- Valo rōve korzī urnen. I see the man’s big long sword. (accusative)
With the different genders, the endings of the adjective also change to show this (to agree). All these are in the nominative:
- (lunar) vala rōva issa the man is big
- (solar) azantys rōvys issa the knight is big
- (terrestrial) blēnon rōvon issa the mountain is big
- (aquatic) embar rōvor issa the ocean is big
Notice how close the endings of the adjectives are to the nouns with which they agree (although as korze has shown this does not have to be so, but I find it helps learning when I can find an agreement like this). I have shown all of these in the singular; if they were in the plural they would have different endings, as these have to agree too.
There are tables available on dothraki.org which show the full range of endings. (It is not necessary to memorise the tables, but being aware of them can help to identify the patterns that are showing up in practice on Duolingo.) The most important parts of the table are generally just the nominative and accusative cases, and the singular and plural columns (look for the 4 cells in the top left of each table, rather than look at the whole table). There is also a lot of similarity between various tables (such as shown with how the endings for rōva and vala are very close to one another) which it is useful to be aware of.
korze is a 4th declension lunar noun: https://wiki.dothraki.org/High_Valyrian_Noun_Declensions#Lunar-type:_gelte
rōva is a class 1 adjective: https://wiki.dothraki.org/High_Valyrian_Adjectives#Class_I
[The examples given in this post are my own constructions - many come up on the course too - and I believe I have written them correctly, but (caveat) error is possible.]