I realize that many short words are pronounced together with the following word without a break, such as v, k, s and do. Is "vy jste" like this? It sounds like it.
Words like "jste", "jsme" are generally pronounced without the "j". That's probably why it sounds joined up with the previous word.
I just learned that in 'proper' czech it should be pronounced with the 'j' in this case (it can be dropped in compound tenses like 'měl jsem' (= I had)). Anyway, you will hear the 'j' probably only in some official speech (tv, radio).
Is the Vy/Ty distinction also age wise? I remember that for Russian I was told that talking to or between children up to around 12 years old there was no formality necessary and after 12 then it was that the formal way of address was used. Is it the same in Czech?
The word definitions are not based on age.
ty = you singular informal/familiar vy = you plural formal & informal/familiar vy = you singular formal only
Now, whether or not you'd use the formal form is based on age (among other things). So, kids use the familiar form when talking to each other. Parents would use the familiar form as well when talking to kids. Kids would use the formal form to talk to adults outside their family - e.g., teachers.
As a kid, it always seemed to me like adults addressing 13 year olds using the formal form as "silly" and "awkward". Now that I think about it, it sounds like a good way to slowly transition the kids from being on the bottom of the social ladder with respect of the formal you to adults!
From what I remember, it started by "young man" and at some point the "young" got dropped.
On the mobile app I can’t see the word that I missed, so I know I’m wrong but don’t know what the right thing is...