Since there is no "the" in czech language, i am pretty sure my answer of "this" woman should be correct. Someone mentioned "that", but wouldn't "that" be translated to "tamta"?
or "tuta" if you come from Pilsen and West Bohemia in general :-) When a lack of an article makes a sentence unclear, Czech usually uses words like "some" "this" or "that" to make that clear.
That's not precisely right. Go back and read the "Demonstratives" section of "Tips and notes" for this lesson again.
Do Czechs from Morava use it other way around in their dialect? I was talking with my friend from Valassko about it, and for him translating "to, ta, ten" as "that" does not makes much sense either, he would rather compare it to "this" as well.
No. It would not. Žena is a wife but 99% of the time you need to have some possessive pronoun with it "Moje, tvoje, jeho....žena".
It also could be understood as a wife in sentences like "Přišel se ženou" = He arrives with (his) woman (wife). If he arrived with a woman, Czech would use "with some" s nějakou...
But stand alone like this or anywhere else this just means a woman.
11 years of living in "Hlavní Město", and I've never heard a Czech, let alone my Czech friends use "ta". Why is this?
Maybe you are deaf?
Ta is the right pronoun here even in Common Czech or just colloquial Czech (ta ženská).