No. It would not. Žena is a wife but 99% of the time you need to have some possessive pronoun with it "Moje, tvoje, jeho....žena".
It also could be understood as a wife in sentences like "Přišel se ženou" = He arrives with (his) woman (wife). If he arrived with a woman, Czech would use "with some" s nějakou...
But stand alone like this or anywhere else this just means a woman.