"Does the dog drink from the toilet?"
Translation:Trinkt der Hund aus der Toilette?
Adding to yaqo's answer. you are using a present perfect, but wrongly. you basically say 'has drink' (has trinken). much like 'drunk' (e.g. he has drunk a lot) is different from 'to drink'. The proper conjugation should be 'getrunken'. If you change that, the sentence is perfect and would be used (were it to be said in a past tense).
Prepositions vary in each language. From my experience, you basically just have to memorize what preposition to use with each verb. In general "to drink from" / "to drink out of" as in "I drink from a cup" or "I drink our of a cup" (or in this case a toilet) translates to "ich trinke aus (etwas)"