"Can you see that small dog?"
Translation:Vidíš toho malého psa?
If the dog is in front of you and you are asking your friend walking next to you 'Can you see that small dog?' you use 'Vidíš toho malého psa?'
'Můžeš vidět toho malého psa?' is still correct Czech, but I wouldn't use it in this case. It implies something a bit different like 'Are you allowed to see that small dog?'
"Can you see" is an anglicism. Most languages follow the Czech pattern: vidíš..., видешь ли..., tú ves... tu vois...., siehst du.... Saying "can you see" in any of those language would have different meanings, as endless sleeper pointed out.
I used "můžu" and "můžeš" quite a bit at first, until my Czech friends set me straight on that! [Czech learner, posting for info only]