Translation:A woman and a pencil
In Korean you basically have three ways of saying "and". They are used in the same way, though some of them are used more frequently by certain people. Meaning you can pretty much choose which one you like the more.
They mean something else than "and" in a lot of situations, but let's assume that's their only application. The three options are:
하고. 김치하고 밥 (kimchi and rice). Always looks the same.
랑 / 이랑. 김치랑 밥이랑 콜라. Add the 이 if the word finishes with a consonant.
와/ 과. 김치와 밥과 콜라. 와 if it finishes with a vowel. 과 if it finishes with a consonant.
So, with the vowel/consonant thing, it is based on the last character of the symbol that precedes the particle. In the case of 밥, since it ends in ㅂ, it must be 밥과, however 남자 ends in ㅏ, so it is 남자와. You can follow the basic english rules when trying to figure out which characters are consonants or vowels, even though Korean has a simple 4 spot system that is always CVCC (C being consonants and V is vowel). Each symbol must containt the first two, but after that it is based on what the word needs. Also, if you translate the 한국 in the romanized for (Namja instead of 남자), you can find the consonants and vowels easier. Beyond that, you must memorize which forms go to which ending (Consonant or Vowel)
와 is used when the word ends with a vowel. 과 is used when the word ends with a consonent. And 하고 is used when we are talking. So basically, 와/과 are used in writing and 하고 is used when talking. And remember, 와/과 is formal, but 하고 is informal. So you can use 하고 when talking or chatting with your friends. But if you are writing an essay or any formal thing, or talking to a senior or an elder, use 와/과.
Some of these symbols have not yet been introduced. Does this language form words using the letters we learned in the first two Alphabet lessons, or am I totally wrong because this is a symbol/character language totally unlike English? I'm really getting confused with this language!
Hey, so I'm guessing you figured this out by now, but each "symbol" that you are talking about is a character representing a full syllable. Each syllable character block is made up of characters that have all been gone over earlier.
Perhaps the confusion for you is coming from not knowing that sometimes you also read down in Korean rather than only reading left to right when reading the syllable characters. For example, 연 is made up of the silent circular symbol, then the "yeo" character, then the "n" character. So 연 is "yeon," sounding like the american english "yawn."