"He is a Chinese man."
Translation:C'est un Chinois.
Nationalities are usually gender specific in themselves. Eg Chinois / Chinoise (Chinese man/woman), Français / Française (French man/woman), Australien / Australienne (Australian man/woman) etc ...
Nationalities and languages are not capitalised (unless they are proper nouns): French and le français, Spanish and l’espagnol. “I have a French friend” would become j’ai un ami français. However, if the nationality is used as a proper noun, then it is capitalised in French. For example:
“I spoke with an American man today” would become j’ai parlé avec un Américain aujourd’hui.
As for Il est vs C'est, l'Académie française states that il est has a qualification value and is therefore used without an article, while c'est has a classification value and is used with the article. Therefore, we write il est médecin but c’est un médecin. In the first case the name can be replaced by an adjective, in the second it cannot.
"Il est" and "elle est" change to "c'est" when they are followed by a modified noun. A noun is modified when preceded by a determiner, which can be an article, a number, a demonstrative or possessive adjective, an indefinite adjective, etc.
The same applies to "ils sont" and "elles sont", to be replaced with "ce sont" with the same rules.
Hi - in American English, the literal translation of this is rude. The rules in English are that certain constructions of origin country are rude for certain countries of origin. Some cases of when this construction is either rude or not used in English are for people from China, Japan, France, Wales, El Salvador, and others I'm sure. We say "He's a Frenchman," not "He's a French." I believe "He's a Frank" is a correct construction but increasingly uncommon, and not always accurate.
Is there another construction that can be used to describe people from other countries? If so, can that be accepted as an answer for this question? Since I don't like saying it in English, I'd rather not say it in French, even if it is grammatical. Thanks.
There is a silly algorithm which does not distinguish "un/une" as articles from "un/une" as numerals, nor "one" as a pronoun from "one" as a numeral.
If Duo wanted "il est chinois" the English sentence would be "he is Chinese" - adjective/adjective
Duo wants a noun preceded by an article "un Chinois". Since "il est un + noun" must be changed to "c'est un + noun", the translation for "he is a Chinese man" is "c'est un Chinois" - noun/noun
Sure, you can (and probably will) say just "C'est un chinois", but that doesn't necessarily mean that "C'est un homme chinois" is incorrect. Obviously the former term will be used colloquially because it's a lot simpler to say, but I think Jojo was asking if the latter is grammatically correct or not.
I don't see any issues with it, but I'm still not sure. I do know that people probably would not use it in regular, everyday speech.
By default, we use "c'est un Chinois" (capitalized) to mean "he is a Chinese man". If this person is not a man, we will get back to the adjective and use "c'est un garçon/citoyen/individu... chinois" (non-capitalized).
The same applies of course to "c'est une Chinoise" to mean "she is a Chinese woman".
And the same also goes for every nationality.
As already mentioned on other threads related to nationality nouns, the French use "c'est un Chinois", which is correct on all fronts. Our own history is different from yours, and this is why there is no moral barrier to use it, as well as any other nationality demonym (un(e) Japonais, un(e) Américain(e), un(e) Anglais(e), etc.).