Translation:The school is a place.
I suggest attempting to read actual running text (e.g.: 위키백과 even if not fluent or familiar with the grammar/vocabulary. The effort may not produce noticeable gains, but they are there. It was just a few weeks ago (after years of reading on and off) that I noticed how quickly I could scan a paragraph of 한글 and extract the gist of the material.
However, the kind of material you read will affect what you improve in. I consume mainly academic materials (specifically linguistics) so I would still be pretty stumped by K-pop lyrics which use vocabulary unfamiliar to me. I’d need to consume more pop culture material to broaden my coverage. But conversely, you might want to break out of K-dramas to do the same.
It sounds more like a soft "t". Like in the word "bought", the letter "t" is not stressed. I use this website (naver dictionary) http://m.endic.naver.com/krenEntry.nhn?entryId=4898f610a1bb47daa01d48f40f0288f4&sLn=kr ; and it shows that the word 곳 is pronounced like 곧, on it's own.
If it's next to a vowel as in 곳입니다, then the ㅅ sound carries over to the vowel immediately following it. So 곳입니다 is pronounced like 고십니다.
So I actually had some trouble with this 이/가, 은/는 business, but I think I figured it out no thanks to the phone app. I figured that 이/가 is used when the thing you're talking about it the subject, e.g. THE house, THE apple and THE milk. Whereas 은/는 is used when you have a general statement. An apple is a fruit, milk is a liquid. A (Some/any) house is a building.
가 is like you're stating that THE school is a place, whereas 는 is where you're saying that A school (some school) is a place. It's more natural
It depends on context too. There may be no correlation at all in some cases. A while ago, I mistook 은/는 for the subject because the translations in English mapped the marked noun to a subject. The grammar did not actually map so neatly. Take the following sentence for example:
- 그는 (topic) 친구가 (subject) 있다 (verb)
- He (subject) has (verb) a (article) friend (object)
The topic in Korean becomes the subject in English, but the subject in Korean becomes the object in English. And there are no articles in Korean so there is a bit of freedom to make some things up so that it makes sense grammatically in English.
Unfortunately, I also spread the misinformation (which I corrected much later after running into it 3 years into the future).
They are all use for “things.” While English assigns roles to nouns strictly using the position of the noun, Korean does it by marking the noun. “John killed Jane” has pretty different semantics than “Jane killed John.” The order of the words in English conveys which noun is the subject and which is the object.
David Atkin, nice illustration of the topic marker after school. For an excellent youtube video covering subject and topic markers, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fCxLNRLntc0 would be 17 1/2 minutes well spent. Your next grammar point, though, was a bit off the mark. In the sentence "The cat sat on the mat", the word "mat" is actually the object of the preposition "to". In Korean, there are different particles for location and direction, and like the verbs, have an opposite sentence placement from English. The location and direction particles (akin to English prepositions) 에, 에서, 로, 으로, 한테, 한테서, 에게, 에게서, come after the noun.
http://talktomeinkorean.com/lessons/l1l18/ Location marking particles http://talktomeinkorean.com/lessons/l1l25/ From A to B, from C until D http://talktomeinkorean.com/lessons/level2lesson2/ Object marking particles http://talktomeinkorean.com/lessons/level-2-lesson-7/ to someone, from someone http://talktomeinkorean.com/lessons/level-2-lesson-28/ particle for method, way
- Remove known endings from the verb/adjective. 입니다 has the root 이 ending in -ㅂ니다.
- Determine from the root leftover what the verb/adjective is. 이 corresponds to 이다 (to be). You just add 다 back to the reconstructed root to get the “citation” (dictionary) form of the verb/adjective.
It seems simple, but in step 1 you must be able to recognize all the possible endings to know where to cut. In step 2, you must determine whether the root is irregular; you will have to reverse the irregularity to get the dictionary form of the verb/adjective.
The rules for irregulars follow patterns, so worry not.
Some of the common irregular root endings to watch out for:
- -ㄷ (becomes ㄹ before some endings)
- 걷다 + -ㅓ ending becomes 걸어, not 걷어
- -ㄹ (removed before some endings)
- 걸다 + -는 ending becomes 거는, not 걸는
- -ㅅ (removed before some endings, but “invisible” consonant remains and prevents contraction of vowels)
- 젓다 + -ㅓ ending becomes 저어, not 젓어
- -ㅡ (removed before some endings and contracts with the following vowel)
- 모으다 + -ㅏ becomes 모아, not 모으어
- -ㅂ (becomes ㅗ or ㅜ before some endings and contracts
with the following vowel)
- 돕다 + -ㅏ ending becomes 도와, not 돕아
- -르 (becomes ㄹㄹ before some endings)
- 자르다 + -ㅏ ending becomes 잘라, not 자르어
The specific cases are numerous and not easy to describe in one post. You’re going to encounter them in later lessons though.
I find explaining topic vs subject difficult, since in English we don't have words that function like these.
Topic is like something you are going to talk about. It gives context or background to the conversation. Subject I feel like is more identifying something, especially who, what, which etc.
I think of the topic markers as translating to something like "As for ..."
eg. 학교는 파란색입니다 (As for the school, it is blue)
We have subjects and objects in English too and they work in similar ways. The "subject" is doing something to the "object" in the sentence. It just looks a little strange at first because english speakers are so used to the Subject-Verb-Object order that most native speakers never think about what a subject or an object is.
Its easier to see the difference in an actual sentence:
"The cat sat on the mat"
The cat (subject) is doing something to the mat (object). What it is doing is the verb (sat). With Korean markers you get:
"cat가 mat를 sat"
I think it helps (if you're a beginner) to just read anything with 가 and 와 as something and if this sentence ends with 입니다 it means "is insert whatever word is stuck in front of it". Same with 아닙니다, means is not. Eg: ~가 #입니다 means ~ is #. ~가 #아닙니다 means ~ is not #.
I hope this helps in any way.
I don't know a lot of korean but when I put what it means it always it's wrong The school is a place., It is the school that is a place.
They think that's the answer and they still say it's wrong
eem knee dah The ending vowels in Korean syllables are affected by the vowels and consonants following. In the case of an ending ㅂ, when the following consanant is ㄴ, the ㅂ is pronounced like an "m" instead of a "b" or "p"
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hCewGEOaWeo and #'s 12, 13, and 14 in this series would also be valuable.