"아니요, 남자아이는 여자가 아닙니다."
Translation:No, boys are not women.
The difference is actually quite unclear. Even fluent Koreans sometimes use wrong particle. But, there IS a difference.
는/은 can be called a "topic particle".
가/이 can be called a "subject particle".
If you want more information, use https://wiseinit.com/%EC%9D%80%EB%8A%94topic-marker-vs-%EC%9D%B4%EA%B0%80subject-marker-korean-grammar-vs-grammar-10
Actually, in Korean, nouns without the plural suffix at the end can be translated as either being singular or plural. You could answer this question as "a boy is not a woman" or as "boys are not women" and either is correct because there is no further context clue given as to plurality.
I think you are being too assumptive about the sentence. There is no indication that this sentence is alluding to trans people. Heck, a boy is a girl makes more sense than a boy is a woman. I think people should start to calm down a bit and stop calling everything as "this-phobia" and "that-phobia". There are more transphobic cases out there that need to be addressed than this silly sentence.
The sentences are how they should be; it's the languages that are different. English is subject-verb-object (SVO), so the English is "No, boys (subject) are not (verb) women (predicate noun, goes in the same place as object)." Korean, however, is subject-object-verb (SOV), so the Korean is "아니요, 남자아이는 (subject) 여자가 (predicate noun) 아닙니다 (verb)."
I might not have the correct grammatical terminology, but that's the idea. It's just something you may have to adjust to when learning any language, not just Korean.
It's not that it's omitted, it's that there is no concept of singular vs plural here. The reason it would have to be expressed using singular (a boy is not a woman) or plural (boys are not women) in English is because English requires one or the other. The meaning behind the expression is neither talking about one boy nor many, it is just talking about the idea of "boy" vs "woman" and showing that these two words do not equate.
For what I understood, koreans tend to drop the 들. Context tells you if it's plural or singular. So both are right (?). A little correction: when the word ends with a consonant you use 은, not 는, so 남자아이들은. Hope someone can check this out and if possible, explain it better ^^
I know this a late response, but I wanted to post in case there are others coming to this page who were curious about this as well.
The way that I am so far understanding 는 ("neun") to work in several cases, appears to be similar to "is", "are", and "am". So, "Aniyo, namchaai neun..." appears to translate to "No, a boy is -not-..." when "no" is placed before the succeeding sentence.
This also seems to hold up with, "저는..." ("Cheoneun/I am..."), and
"여자아이들는 사람입니다." ("Yoechaaiteul neun saramipnida./ Girls are people."
I'm still only a couple months into learning myself, so I apologize if there are holes in my explanation. I hope this helps a bit, though; I wish you success in your education.
For anyone still confused the answer they give is correct! While 남자아이 isn't commonly used(like rarely) it does mean boy. The 아이 part is what makes it boy, if it was just 남자 then it would be man but it is not. Also 는 is a topic marker, look up korean grammar app to learn more about those kinds of things! (I forgot the English name for the app, sorry.)
how would you say "the boy is not a woman" then? 잠자아이가 여자를 이닙니다? I am just thinking that if the 가 particle were to be used with "boy" to imply that you were referring to a certain boy and not generalising, surely you would have to use a different particle for 여자?
In Korean, singular and plural are not really distinguished (not to the point that English does). So, in Korean, "Boys are not women" and "The boy is not a woman" can be pretty much said the same (남자아이는 여자가 아닙니다) , and you'd use context to figure out which one was meant.
I am just thinking that if the 가 particle were to be used with "boy" to imply that you were referring to a certain boy and not generalising, surely you would have to use a different particle for 여자?
You would not use a different particle for 여자. The reason is due to the verb you're working with: 아니다 (conjugated as 아닙니다 here). 아니다 is a descriptive verb, so it can never take an object; it can only take a subject. Thus, the thing you are negating will always have an 이/가 attached. (The form X is not Y is always X은/는 Y이/가 아닙니다.) It has nothing to do with the line of reasoning you are suggesting.
Even though I stated that 은/는 would need to be attached to the X (in X은/는 Y이/가 아닙니다), it would not be grammatically wrong if you wanted to use 가 on 남자아이 instead. (The reason is a bit complicated, so don't worry for now.) However, you still wouldn't change the particle on 여자 for the reason I stated earlier. So, a sentence like 남자아이가 여자가 아닙니다 is not grammatically incorrect.
The 은/는 이/가 particles are hard to understand, so don't try too hard to understand them for now. Just know that they exist, and as you see more Korean sentences, you will slowly better understand how they work.
How to use the endings 은 / 는 and 이 / 가 So, first of all, it must be remembered that 은 / 이 is used only after the consonant, and 는 / 가 is used only after vowels. These endings are applied only to the subjects. 은 / 는 these endings are placed at the end of the subject to emphasize the verb. 이 / 가 these endings are placed at the end of the subject to emphasize the subject. 아니요, 남자아이는 여자가 아닙니다. (No, the boy is not a woman.) You come to the conclusion. (By the way, can someone tell me if the above sentence is plural or singular)
You don't use the subject marker when using 이다 / 입니다. You only use it when negating with 아니다 / 아닙니다. 이다 is a copula that acts like a particle and so it should attach to the thing that it is equal to.
Your (weird) sentence should be: 남자아이는 여자입니다. (notice no space between 여자 and 입니다.)