-에게 is a suffix that you attach to nouns to imply "TO" or direction. -에 alone can be used though that's more for places in my personal experience, and you almost always use 에게 with people. To give an example: 나는 집에 가요 - I go (to) home Sarah에게 편지를 보내요 - I send a letter TO Sarah.
If you want to say from, 에게서 sooooo Sarah는 저에게서 편지를 바다요. - Sarah receives a letter FROM me.
Adding 에게 means that an action is directed towards something/someone. So writing 나에게 means an action happened "to me."
I believe 있냐 is a very informal version of 있습니까 - it implies a question, but it is extremely casual/could be taken as rude.
Yes, in this case it is being rude on purpose for extra aggression and insult.
Can someone break this down a little? Specifically:
- Where's the topic/subject particle for 너?
- What's "and" doing here after "talking"?
- Which level of formality is this? Not one we've seen before I take it.
I'll try, someone please correct me if I'm wrong.
I think the topic particle was omitted here because the sentence is informal/casual. But I think 너는 would have worked here.
That "고" is not "and". The structure used there is verb stem + 고 있다, which is the present progressive tense. In the sentence above the verb is 말하다, the verb stem is 말하, then you add ~고 있다. So the end result is 말하고 있어요 which is "talking".
This is informal/casual speech. A more polite version could use "있나요?" or "있습니까?"
can you please explain "있나요" as well? Why 나 in the middle rather than 있어요?
Honestly this sentence feels like a huge leap compared to the material until now...
~나요 is just an ending to make something a question. You could use 있어요 too. This example just uses 있냐.
Check this website, it has casual question endings like 냐, 니: https://wiseinit.com/%EC%96%B4-%EC%95%84-%EB%8B%88-%EC%A7%80-%EB%83%90-%EB%82%98question-verb-endings-of-korean-korean-grammar-vs-grammar-2/
Polite question endings like 나요: https://wiseinit.com/polite-question-endings%EB%82%98%EC%9A%94-%EC%96%B4%EC%9A%94-%EC%95%84%EC%9A%94-%EC%A7%80%EC%9A%94-%EC%8A%B5%EB%8B%88%EA%B9%8C-korean-grammar-vs-grammar-3/
It is kind of a jump since we haven't been using informal speech or other question endings.
I'm thinking it's "나에게 말하고 싶은 것이 있나요?" But I'm not sure if that sounds natural.
Wow, what an abrupt shift! Duo did not introduce progressive tense, did not discuss in any detail 반말, and up to this point has stuck with the most formal forms. Then, wham! How do you say "pedagogy" in Korean?