"Ne, ty hrady velké nejsou."
Translation:No, those castles are not big.
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The Golden Rule of Duolingo: Translate as closely as possible.
'No, those castles are not big.' = Ne, ty hrady nejsou velké/velké nejsou.
'No, those are not big castles.' = Ne, to nejsou velké hrady.
In another way, in the first sentence, the adjective is connected to the verb, in the second sentence, to the noun.
There are many explanations on the internet. Just search and find stuff like https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/that-these-and-those
They are equal and the choice is up to the speaker. Some only use "veliký", some only use "velký, some feel that "veliký" is a bit bigger (more intense) than "velký". You can use either of them.
There are a few fixed expressions where only one is used and not the other, for instance "Velká Británie" or "Alexandr Veliký".