"여자는 한국어를 안 배웁니다."
Translation:A woman does not learn Korean.
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I mean that's how everyone speaks nowadays... "I cannot English today"??? I say that XD
Depending on context, "(noun)는" could be translated as either singular or plural, as it is common for 은/는 to imply the sentence to be a general statement.
For example: "자동차는 차량 입니다." could be literally translated as "A car is a vehicle." and gives the same general idea as "Cars are vehicles."
공부하다 = to study
배우다 = to learn
Although studying and learning have similar meanings, they are not the same. Learning is more of an overall approach of different methods to gain knowledge in a skill or subject. Studying is an aspect of learning, that's typically a more uniform task of memorization, reading comprehension, etc. Learning can include things like just immersing yourself in a skill or activity. Like by playing baseball, you can be learning it just by playing, through experience. Studying baseball would be like reading a book on baseball or watching videos of baseball tutorials to improve.
Study is 공부하다. They imply getting knowledge through reading, formal classes/lessons, reflection, etc.
배우다 is "learn", which both have a wider meaning of how you get knowledge.
You can even "study" something without learning it. And there are lots of things you learned without studying.