"I hate that man."
Translation:저는 그 남자를 미워합니다.
It should be if you say 남자를 instead of 남자가. The difference between 밉다 and 미워하다 is similar to the difference between 좋다 and 좋아하다. Let's explore why.
밉다 roughly means "to be detestable" and 좋다 means "to be good". Since they're both descriptive (adjective) verbs that are intransitive (meaning they take a subject but not an object), they indicate that the subject is good/detestable. E.g.
이 사과는 좋아요 - This apple is good.
케일은 미워요 - Kale is detestable.
Now, 좋아하다 literally reads "to do be-good" but means "to like". Similarly, 미워하다 literally reads "to do be-detestable" but means "to dislike". Both of these are transitive verbs (which means they take on a subject and an object) and indicate that, to the subject, the object is good/detestable. E.g.
(저는) 이 사과를 좋아해요 - I like this apple. (To me, this apple is good)
(저는) 케일을 미워해요 - I hate kale. (To me, kale is detestable)
Are you noticing a pattern yet? Now then, what happens when you use intransitive descriptive verbs 밉다 and 좋다 and have a subject and a topic that are different? It indicates that, to the topic, the subject is good/detestable. E.g.
(저는) 이 사과가 좋아요 - I like this apple. (To me, this apple is good)
(저는) 케일이 미워요 - I hate kale. (To me, kale is detestable)
Note that without 저는 if the topic is already implicitly "I" this is what you're saying (hence why I used 은/는 in the first two examples).
In short, its the difference between "is hateable" vs "to hate". 밉다 (미워요 here) is a descriptive verb that describes the subject is hateable. However, 미워하다 (미워해요 here) is an action verb used to say that subject hates the object. You can say that "the something is hateable" or you can say that "you hate the something." Both mean the same thing in many circumstances.
Let's just use variations on Duolingo's sentence and explain the differences. Consider the two sentences that you may hear in spoken Korean where dropping particles is not uncommon:
그 남자 미워요.
그 남자 미워해요.
Without the particles on 남자, both sentences mean the same thing: "That man is hateable." or "(I or someone) hate that man".
If you want to be specific about who does the hating, then you will need to care about which verb and which particle. Here's a breakdown on the variations of particles and verbs:
저는 그 남자가 미워요 = "I find the man hateable." or as Duolingo frames it "To me, the man is hateable." or more naturally "I hate that man."
저는 그 남자를 미워요 is a grammatically incorrect sentence as the root verb 밉다 is a descriptive verb that describes the subject. You cannot use 을/를 with 미워요.
그 남자가 미워해요 = "The man hates someone (an implied or missing object)." 저는 would not be used here.
저는 그 남자를 미워해요 = "I hate that man."
Note that if you wanted to say "That man hates me." you could use Sentence 3: 그 남자가 저를 미워해요.
Edit: This pattern of combining 하다 with descriptive verbs to imply some sort of actor or relationship between subject and object is consistent for other verbs as well. Examples:
좋다 (to be good) vs 좋아하다 (to like)
싫다 (to be unpleasant) vs 싫어하다 (to dislike)
예쁘다 (to be pretty) vs 예뻐하다 (to consider and treat someone/something as pretty)
슬프다 (to be sad) vs 슬퍼하다 (to be and express sadness)
I asked my expert and she said 미워하다 is for people and 싫어하다 is for everything else. There are a lot of constructs in Korean that distinguish between people and things (e.g. adjectives for hot and cold). This is one of those cases. Besides that, the meanings are the same.
Can someone help me out? i dont really understand the formality mixture. By using "저는", you talk formally (합쇼체), but at the same time using the (해요체) ending "미워요".
Wouldn't it make more sense to be "저는 그 남자가
미워합니다", using the formal ending with the initial formal start.
Does it not matter? Duolingo tips explain:
"On the other hand, it is weird to lower yourself and at the same time not raise the listener."
Im assuming that this is what they are talking about
I'll respond to both of your concerns here.
i dont really understand the formality mixture.
The choice between 저 vs 나 can be seen as a matter of formality based on the relationship between you and the speaker, regardless of the speech level used. So while the conversation between you and someone may not require much formality (like at a convenience store), the pronoun 저 is still used.
would "저는 그 남자를 싫어합니다" be correct?
Yes it should. 싫어하다 is general use while 미워하다 is specifically for people or animals.
Edit: Corrected the subject marker to an object marker.
would "저는 그 남자가 싫어합니다" be correct?
Yes it should.
The problem I see with "저는 그 남자가 싫어합니다" is the topic marker on 남자. If you use the action verb 싫어하다, you need to mark the object of your dislike with the object marker 를. If you use the topic marker 가, pair it with the descriptive verb 싫다.
This is more about the level of respect than formality. 해요체 is informal but high respect, therefore it goes well with lowering yourself by using 저. In fact, most of the time you'll be using 저, except with 해체.
There are situations where you'd be the higher ranking one (hence no need to lower yourself), but still would want to show respect to the person you're talking to (or be formal), resulting in 나 + 해요체 or 합쇼체. But can you think of a situation in which you'd want to lower yourself while not showing any respect and being completely informal? That's what that Duo-quote was about; that's why using 저 with 해체 sounds weird.
Essentially, it is 싫다 (to be unpleasant) vs. 싫어하다 (to dislike or to find unpleasant). You can use either when you are talking about your own preferences. You must use 싫어하다 when speaking about others' perferences.
The colorful reasoning here is that only you can speak truth to your own feelings, but can only express someone else's feelings through their actions (thus the 하다 compound form).