"The dog swims to the island."
Translation:개가 섬까지 수영합니다.
-까지 marks the endpoint (to). It is the Korean terminative case marker.
-로 marks the direction (towards). It is the Korean orientative case marker.
If the dog was just swimming torwards the island, it doesn't necessarily mean that is his destination/goal. Maybe the dog is rescuing its foolish owner who tried to swim to the island with the intention of being on the island but almost drown in between.
So the difference between -까지 and -로 is like the difference between ～へ and ～に in Japanese(?)
The 까지 is the "to" marker. 섬 is the base on its own. Though why it's different than 으로???
Like Kevin said, 까지 indicates destination/goal. (ㅡ)로 only indicates direction (towards).
and how do you know which particle you need to use in sentences like this one? "the dog swims to the island" could mean both, couldn't it?
Like LiKenun (above) said, -까지 means that the dogs goal is to get to the island, while -로 means that the dog is swimming in the islands general direction without the intent of getting onto the island, please correct me if I'm wrong. (:
I think so. Perhaps a native speaker can help us out, but I think there is a slight difference in meaning that can both be expressed as "The dog swims to the island" in English. 섬에 means the dog swims to the island, and the island is its destination. 섬까지 means the dog swims as far as the island, but the island isn't necessarily its destination, it may be turning around and swimming back.
I was expecting a Plague Dogs reference here lol
Interesting read but really sad. There's a movie too. Do not recommend watching if you really love dogs. You will cry WAY harder than you did at the end of Marley and Me.
There is no word for " the " in Korean.
~이 / ~가 and ~은 / ~는 are markers that indicate the subject and topic respectively.
You can read more in the Notes from the Basics 1 lessons: