나 = casual speech for "I/me"
는 = topic particle, tells the reader "As opposed to someone one else, I ...."
친구 = "friend"
를 = object particle, tells the reader what the verb is acting on. In this sentence, it tells us what is being believed by me.
너무 = "very/too", for example, "that plate is VERY large/too large."
믿다 = to trust/believe something/someone.
-습니다 - verb ending that makes the sentence "high formal" speech, which is the most formal/polite/respectful way to say something.
It would be a better translation to say "I believe in my friends too much" to make more sense in English, but I think they translated it that way because it is not a literal translation of the sentence, since "my" is not included.
In context, this sentence could just as easily mean "I believe in my sister's friends too much" or "I believe in my husband's friends too much".
I'm confused about the translation of 'too' with 너무.. Does it work the same way as 'too' in English or does it simply indicate that something is 'a lot' or 'really'
There's too much food= a lot of food but in English- it kinda implies that 'There's a lot of food, we can't finish it all'. I'm just wondering if it is the same in Korean? Sorry if the question is confusing, English isn't my first language either
너무 is the exact interpretation of the English adverb intensifier "too", meaning excessively/overly.
Both carry a negative connotation which has often been overlooked by users, especially in spoken language (misuse and abuse of language).
For positive intensifiers s.a. "so" or "really", Koreans use either 진짜, truly and 정말, really. Other intensifiers of similar meanings include 매우/아주, very.
As for "much", "many" or "a lot" (= 많이, 다량), these are plain adverbs of quantity (not adverb-intensifiers). They cannot act as a "booster" to another word.
In speech language, yes. This is because the plurality/singularity of the attached word can be understood by the listener basing on the context of the conversation.
Do note however that -들 can not be omitted if a demonstrative 이, 저 or 그 is used.
In a stand-alone sentence s.a. this, it is a bit ambiguous.
Without the plural marker -들, 친구 can be interpreted here as either "a friend" or "friends". [IMO: DLG should really accept both translations].
Like you, I would tend to opt for the former, especially as it involves animate objects (persons, animals).