"The man sleeps."
Translation:남자가 잠을 잡니다.
Is the second word optional or not? A previous sentence, "The cats sleep," did not include it.
I know 잠을 자- is a pair that means "to sleep", and that either of them are sometimes omitted, but could anyone break down their individual meanings/roots?
I think previously, someone explained it as 잠을 잡니다 meant something along the lines of sleeps a sleep?
I'd hazard a guess that one comes from the other, unfortunately there's no recorded evidence of what Korean was like before the Chinese introduced Hanja in the 4th century CE, so most simple words like this we just don't know where they came from.
Yeah a previous sentence, 잡니다 was counted correctly, but in this situation it was not accepted alone.
to be clear, are all of these following sentences correct?:
남자가 잠을 잡니다. 남자 잠 잡니다. 남자 잡니다.
so particles as well as "잠(을)" can be omitted without changing the meaning?
No; at least in the formality level of speech that ends verbs with -ㅂ니다 (called hasipsio-che, 하십시오체), particles are never optional. However, at least in modern 한국어, it seems that 잠을 can be omitted. You can just say 남자가 잡니다. Just like how an English sentence doesn't mean the same thing if the words are in the wrong order, Korean grammar requires the use of particles in most cases.