basically 은/는 is a subject particle while 이/가 is an object particle so adding 가 to 제 (저) makes "I" the object of the sentence... and the meaning of "제가 갑니다" is like saying "im the one going"... hope this helps
은/는 is the topic particle. 이/가 is the subject particle. I think adding 가 to "I" would make "I" the thing doing the action in the sentence. 가 identifies who, what, which thing...I believe everything else you said is right. "WHO is going?" "제가요"/"It's ME"/"I am"
Object marker is 을/를. Object is something that is being acted upon.
가 is a subject particle? the comment below you says it's an object particle. i'm confused ;(
저 is normal form of I (formal). 제 is 저 +ㅣ so it becomes 제 and means I as subject.
Remember topic vs subject rule? 은/는 for topic and 이/가 for subject.
So to write I as topic, use 저는. To write I as subject, use 제가.
Another example is 나, also means I but informal. 나는 = I as topic. 내가 = I as subject.
In general, both of them are acceptable in most of cases, in grammar. However, depending on the content you want to say, it can be variable. I will give examples based on my experiences: 1. 저는, when I translate, it mean "about me" or "myself". Then, I usually use in description anything about me rather than an action in which I am actor. 2. 제가, it is more prefer than 저는, if you don't know exactly which is correct. I use it in an action state, or say somethings of mine.
am i the only one who hates that duolingo is teaching the formal form. it's much easier to learn dictionary form then conjugate from there.
what's the different between topic and subject markers at the beginning of a sentence?
Im finding formal form difficult too mostly because my friends (obviously) dont speak formally around me and im not used to hearing it
This is a rare case when the Korean translation is longer than the English. The Korean has 5 "letters", but the English just has 3.
The Korean sentence has 11 letters combined into five syllables/morphemes. But it's true that the English sentence is much shorter.