"No, girls are not men."
Translation:아니요, 여자아이는 남자가 아닙니다.
They are both from the verb 아니다 meaning "to be not".
아닙니다 is just the most polite and formal version.
아니예요 is less formal but still polite.
They mean the same thing. "Is not/are not".
This websit has more on it: http://www.sayjack.com/blog/2010/06/18/verb-to-be-in-korean/
없다 means "non-existent/there is no/doesn't have" and it's the opposite of 있다, which means "exists/there is/has". 아니다 means "is not" and is the opposite of 이다 which is used at the ends of words to mean "it is". Like 개입니다 would mean "it's a dog."
개가 있습니다 = There is a dog. 개가 없습니다 = There is no dog/(I) don't have a dog. 개가 아닙니다 = It is not a dog.
Why do we have 여자아이는 and 남자가? I know the 는 and 가 mean their the subject of the sentence but why do they both have it? Isn't the subject of the sentence only supposed to be 여자아이는? I think there would have to be an 화 in order to put 남자 as the subject as well. Help me... I'm so confused!
는/은 = topic marker, gives background to what you are talking about 이/가 = subject marker, actual grammatical part of the sentence
여자아이는 = as for girls, speaking of girls... (this is just background info to keep in mind for what is going to be talked about) 남자가 = Men (가 identifies who/what/which thing is the focus of the sentence)
남자가 아닙니다 = Not men. Not a man. 여자아이는 남자가 아닙니다 = Speaking of girls, are not men.
들 is what makes a noun plural. 가 (or 이) are subject markers, and have nothing to do with pluralizing. In the example 남자 is the subject.
It's saying "as for girls (topic/background info on what's about to be said), men (subject/identifier of who/what/which) they are not"
It's not clear whether it's "man" or "men", but when translating it to English we like to make things agree I think, so... The sentence could be "girl is not a man" as well, the idea is the same anyway.
Is it just me, or was i not given any information on how to answer this, or any reason why two words that are near identical aren't both right? Im not korean nor do i speak korean but i would like to at least know about the formality of words and why one is correct over the other
Whether you translate "여자아이는" using singular or plural will really make no difference in the idea contained.
는 makes "여자아이" the topic of the sentence, so it's a general statement about "여자아이".
As a general statement: "A girl is not a man." and "Girls are not men." give the same meaning.
Similarly, "오렌지는 과일입니다." could be translated as "An orange is a fruit.", but that's a general statement applying to all of them, so "Oranges are fruits." is the same idea.
I am confused on this question, it says I need to select "No, girls are not men" in Korean, so I selected "아뇨 여자애들은 남성들이 아니에요." because that was the closest translation to "no, girls are not men." but then the app says I am wrong, and that the answer is "아니요, 소녀는 남자가 인닙니다" so then I translated both on papago, and it says that "아니요, 소녀는 남자가 인닙니다" means "no, she's a man." and that "아뇨 여자애들은 남성들이 아니에요." means "no, girls are not men." ... so is there something I am missing or was it just a mistake?
는/은 I think has the nuance of general truths. Apples are food/ 사과는 음식입니다 is like a general truth, apples in general are food. There is no 이 after 음식 because the sentence is saying "apples are food". 이/가 is the subject marker.
사과는=speaking of apples 음식입니다=it is/they are food
I think it's just a rule that 이다/입니다 etc. is just connected to the noun (음식). It is always written without spaces. 아니다/아닙니다 is written with a space. I think that's just the way it is.
Whether you translate it as singular or plural, you'll get the same idea either way. 는 makes it "여자아이" be the topic and so the sentence gives the feeling of a general about girls.
As an example, "사과는 과일입니다." can be translated both as "An apple is a fruit." and "Apples are fruits." In either case, it's a general statement about all apples.
Why is "girls" merely a topic in this sentence and "men" is the subject. Isn't the purpose of this sentence to say something about girls? Whereas the men part of the sentence is almost a description, saying the thing about the girl that you are trying to say.
Sorry I'm just not understanding why the girl is not the subject here can someone please explain?
The concept of topic and subject in English is almost the same to me, which is why I think it's a difficult concept to grasp when it comes to learning Korean.
Think of topic 은/는 as background information on what's about to be said. It is sometimes translated like "speaking about [topic]..." In this case, the background information is "girls". Translated like "speaking of girls...".
Think of subject 이/가 of what we consider is the actual grammatical part of the sentence. 이/가 identifies that. 남자가 아닙니다 = Not men. Not a man.
여자아이는 남자가 아닙니다 = Speaking of girls, (they) are not men.
But a more natural translation is "Girls are not men", so to an English speaker, "Girls" is the subject. The concepts are just different, as we don't have "topics" in English in the same sense.
Topic vs. Subject
The concept of topics and subjects arise from different spheres in linguistic and their definition is independent of the specific language. A topic is the part of the sentence that refers to "old information," which is accompanied by a comment which provides "new information," which often adds to or modifies the topic. Topic-comment structures are relevant to how information is structured and delivered in a sentence. Duolingo frames this in English using the additional clause "Regarding [TOPIC], ..."
In contrast, subjects are syntactical, used to define word order, and for the purposes of our discussion will be defined by its agreement with the verb. In other words, subjects are ones performing the sentence's verb.
Topics and subjects often coincide but can be identified in English when comparing a sentence between its active and passive voices. For example consider the two sentences:
The girl throws the ball. ("Regarding the girl, she throws the ball.")
The ball was thrown by the girl. ("Regarding the ball, it was thrown by the girl.")
In Sentence 1, "the girl" is both the subject and the topic. However in Sentence 2, "the ball" is the topic while "the girl" remains the subject.
A related question that is commonly asked among Korean learners is when to use topic markers over subject markers. The best answer that I've found is to consider which question the sentence answers. Consider the two variations of Sentence 1 in Korean:
여자아이가 공을 던집니다
여자아이는 공을 던집니다
Both are valid constructions, but these two sentences answer two different questions. Sentence 3 answers the question: "Who throws the ball?" while sentence 4 answers the question: "How is the girl?".
Copulas are Special
Typically you would use the object particle 을/를 to denote the object of a verb. However the copula 이다 and its negative 아니다 do not accept objects but rather "subject complements". Instead of the subject interacting with an object through verbs, the subject is modified or related to a "subject complement" with a copula. Its pedantic, but that logic is consistent across many languages.
In practice, Koreans use the sentence construction:
- X(이/가/은/는) Y(이/가) 아니다
to mean "X is not Y." and the construction
- X(이/가/은/는) Y이다
to mean "X is Y."
The desktop version of duolingo will have notes.
To say "X is not Y", we use the sentence "X은/는 Y이/가 아니다".
In this particular case, we use the 이/가 particle to denote the Y that we are equating to X. Note that when we equate two things together, we drop particle and combine the noun with the verb 이다.
여자아이는 남자가 아닙니다 = "Girls are not men."
여자아이는 사람입니다 = "Girls are people."
If you use the topic marker, it often makes no difference whether you use plural or singular.
example: "남자는 외계인이 아닙니다." With "는", "남자" is marked as the topic of the sentence. So, it is a general statement about "남자".
Singular: "A man is not an alien." But it's a statement about "a man" in general, so it applies to all men. So "Men are not aliens." is the same idea, even if not literally the same.
Just like "오렌지는 과일입니다." could be translated both as "An orange is a fruit." and "Oranges are fruits."
I think you're asking about 소녀 and 소년.
소(少) means young/small.
여/녀 are the same (女), meaning female.
남(男) means male.
년(年) means "year"
자(子) means "person"
So, 소녀 means "young female"; a girl. And 여자 means "female person"; a woman or girl.
And 소년 literally means "young years"; a "juvenile". But usually it means a "juvenile male"; a boy. And 남자 means "male person"; a man or boy.
는/은 is the topic marker. Often, it means that the sentence in question is a general statement about each and every example of the noun. So, whether "남자는" gets translated as "men" or "a man" makes no difference, as in both cases, it's a general statement about all guys. Same thing with women; 여자는 could be translated as "women" or "a woman". This applies to every noun/topic.
And 들 is always the plural marker, but it's left out when it's not needed by context.
"I like oranges." is "저는 오렌지가 좋아해요." I didn't write "오렌지들이" because it's obvious that I'm not talking about a single orange.