Questions about Tips And Notes: Animals
I have two questions about the Tips & Notes of the Animals section:
1) Do different case-endings in patterns occur often (such as muž-i and kon-ě in the muž-pattern)? If so, how "hard" are patterns?
2) Under the verb table there's a note about another word for 'to eat' (used for animals), I assume as opposed to the word 'human eating' word in the food section? However, there's no such word in the table?
A neuter noun "žrádlo" in Město pattern table means "animal food".
And a verb "žrát" in Lesson 3 is that "to eat" only applicable if the eater is an animal. BTW, it's the direct equivalent of German "fressen".
BTW #2, congratulations on your 200 day streak!
Thanks, I found and fixed the problem with the missing verb. The refresher on "be" had to go to make room for this version of "eat" in the table. It should refresh for users in a few hours.
Děkuji! I can see the change already. Thanks for all the hard work you put into this. I planned to learn Czech because it sounds like an interesting language and I liked the challenge. Thus far, Czech has not disappointed me!
Thanks! If you see further issues with the Tips and Notes, you know where we hide...
To answer your pattern question, yes. There are patterns for every gender. For masculine it is PÁN (master), HRAD (castle), MUŽ (man), STROJ (machine) and less common PŘEDSEDA (chairman) and SOUDCE (judge). Every masculine word fits one of these patterns.
I think you misunderstood my question. I was wondering how common it is that there's a difference in endings within one pattern: muž and kůň are both muž-pattern but there's a different ending in the nom. pl. (muž-i and kon-ě).
Yes, I am very sorry to say that it's pretty common. If we are talking about the masculine animate words, then it's more about the fact that there is more than one possible ending.
I am bored, so following is an explanation that is intended mainly for language nerds. ;)
If we are talking about the nominative plural for masculine animate, then the most common ending is -i. But there are some others, like -ové and -é. Moreover, some words can have more than one ending. :(
-e is used for koně 'horses' and rodiče 'parents'
This is actually the ending for masculine inanimate but it's used for these two animate words as well. Do not ask me why.
-ové is used typically:
for personal names Petrové 'Peters'
for monosyllabic words Irové 'Irishmen', synové 'sons' (but Češi 'Czechs')
for words ending in -j ('muž' pattern) and -l ('pán' pattern) čarodějové 'wizards'
for words mostly of foreign origin referring to professions etc. ending in -log, -urg, -graf, -fil, -fob or -nom biologové 'biologists' ekonomové 'economists'.
-é is used typically:
for words ending in -tel ('muž' pattern) like učitelé 'teachers', hostitelé 'hosts' (btw, one false friend warning: hosté means 'guests') and for words with similar ending like manželé 'husband and wife', andělé 'angels'
for words ending in -an ('pán' pattern) like Pražané 'Praguers', občané 'citizens', křesťané 'Christians'
for words ending in -ita, -ista, -asta ('předseda' pattern) like fašisté 'fascists'
-é can sometimes be replaced by -i but it's considered colloquial.
It's pretty complicated, eh? But don't despair and don't give up, I believe in you! You will learn most of this by practise, practise and practise.
All of this information was shamelessly copied from http://prirucka.ujc.cas.cz/ the most comprehensive Internet guide to the Czech language, brought to you by the Institute of the Czech Language of the Czech Academy of Sciences - it's a great site, but only in Czech :(
There are a few. "Kůň" is one of them, another example would be "den=day", which declensions float in between singular pattern for stroj and plural pattern for hrad.
There are also differences in plural when declining nouns that are parts of our body and we have two of them (oko-oči = eye-eyes, ucho-uši = ear-ears, etc.), but for example "rope's eye-rope's eyes" would be regular like in pattern město - "oko-oka"; and similarly "cup handle-cup handles" would be "ucho-ucha".